InfyOm Blog


Last week, we run into a problem for one of the large Gatsby + ReactJS + Laravel projects in hosting which is hosted with Apache Webserver on Amazon AWS EC2. The problem we were facing was, for some reason, when we reload the Gatsby website, it was giving a 404 error page.

If you open a home page and then a normal visit then the website will fully function, but if you reload the page then it gives an error. And we found it happens when we are using Dynamic routing of React Route in Gatsby as per show in Gatsby documentation here.

Also, what we found, if we test the website build with gatsby serve then it works fine. But while using Apache, it behaves differently and we found that this problem has been faced by lots of people over the internet.

So what we came up with is, we used gatsby serve with an apache proxy. Here is how we did it,

Step 1 - Setup Project

As a first step, clone the project on the server and run a command, gatsby build to create a gatsby build.

Step 2 - Setup PM2 for Gatsby Serve

The next step that we need to do is run gatsby serve. But as you know, we can not run this command directly via console, because as you exit from the console, the command will be terminated.

So we will be using pm2 package, a NodeJS utility that is used to run nodejs apps.

For that, we will need to install pm2 globally. Run the following command to install it,

npm install pm2 -g

You can find other installation ways here if you need.

Once the installation has been done, let's run the gatsby serve command via pm2. For that run the following command from the gatsby project folder,

pm2 start gatsby --name my-web-app -- serve

where my-web-app you can replace with the name of your app.

Once, it's running, try to test it, if it's working correctly by opening the URL http://your-ip-address:9000/. Make sure, port 9000 is opened on your server for traffic.

Step 3 - Configure Apache

Once, gatsby serve is working and tested. The next step is to configure apache to proxy all port 80 traffic to port 9000.

For that, edit your apache conf file (or virtual host conf file), and add the following lines (or configure it to something like the following),

<VirtualHost *:80>


        ProxyRequests On
        ProxyPass / http://localhost:9000/
        ProxyPassReverse / http://localhost:9000/

        ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/
        CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/my-web-app.log combined

        # any other options below as per your need

The next step you need to do is restart your apache server by,

sudo service apache2 restart

And then you can just open the URL and it should work fine.


New Deployment

Whenever you deploy a new code, you again need to run gatsby build and then pm2 restart my-web-app. Then only it will take new changes.


Sometimes, we found that we need to restart apache as well after the new deployment. so if you run into any trouble, then make sure to restart apache as well and it should solve the problem.

I hope it may help you to resolve your 404 problem.

July 16, 20213 minutesuserMitul Golakiya


First, create a new Android Studio project and add the dependencies and plugin. First set up OneSignal in your project.
Add OneSignal dependency and plugin to your build.Gradle app-level.

apply plugin: 'com.onesignal.androidsdk.onesignal-gradle-plugin'

dependencies {
    implementation 'com.onesignal:OneSignal:3.12.6'
end add OneSignal dependency to your build.Gradle project-level.
buildscript {
    repositories {
    dependencies {
        classpath ''
        classpath '[0.12.4, 0.99.99]'
Step: 2  Create a new OneSignal Project

  • login your OneSignal Account than create an app
    1.png 34.06 KB
  • Enter Your Android Application Name & Select platform  Google Android(FCM)
    2.png 76.02 KB
  • Generate a Firebase Server Key Read the documentation.
  •  Enter your Firebase Server Key & Firebase Sender ID.

Step: 3  Add Your Created Onesignal App ID

Add OneSignl default config  to your build.Gradle app-level.
android {
    compileSdkVersion 30
    buildToolsVersion "30.0.2"

    defaultConfig {
        applicationId ""
        minSdkVersion 17
        targetSdkVersion 30
        versionCode 1
        versionName "1.0.0"
        multiDexEnabled true
        testInstrumentationRunner "androidx.test.runner.AndroidJUnitRunner"
        manifestPlaceholders = [onesignal_app_id               : "Enter Your App ID",
                                onesignal_google_project_number: " Enter Firebase Sender ID"]

    buildTypes {
        release {
            minifyEnabled true
            shrinkResources true
            proguardFiles getDefaultProguardFile('proguard-android-optimize.txt'), ''

    compileOptions {
        sourceCompatibility JavaVersion.VERSION_1_8
        targetCompatibility JavaVersion.VERSION_1_8
The next step is to create the class MyApplication & Declare the class MyApplication in AndroidManifest.xml.

import android.content.Context;
import androidx.multidex.MultiDex;
import com.onesignal.OneSignal;

public class MyApplication extends Application {
    public static Context context;

    public void onCreate() {
        context = getApplicationContext();
        context = this;

    public static Context getContext() {
        return context;
Declare the class MyApplication in AndroidManifest.xml.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<manifest xmlns:android=""

    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.INTERNET" />
    <uses-permission android:name="android.permission.ACCESS_NETWORK_STATE" />


                <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN" />
                <category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER" />


October 01, 20201 minuteauthorVivek Beladiya
We are adding a sitemap in our all site pages for making sure search engines (such as Google) can find and crawl them all. 

So, I will show you how to set a sitemap on the Gatsby site.

To generate an XML sitemap, you will use the gatsby-plugin-sitemap package.

Install the package by running the following command: npm install gatsby-plugin-sitemap

How to configure

Once the installation is complete, you can now add this plugin to your gatsby-config.js, like so:

Configure siteUrl and add this {resolve: `gatsby-plugin-sitemap`} into the plugins array. code looks like

module.exports = {
  siteMetadata: {
    title: `InfyOm Technologies`,
    description: `InfyOm Technologies`,
    keyword: `InfyOm Technologies`,
    author: `@gatsbyjs`,
    siteUrl: ``
  flags: {
  plugins: [
    {resolve: `gatsby-plugin-sitemap`},

Above is the minimal configuration required to have it work. By default, the generated sitemap will include all of your site’s pages.
you can exclude a path using the exclude option. you need to configure it

  • output (string) The file path and name. Defaults to /sitemap.xml.
  • exclude (array of strings) An array of paths to exclude from the sitemap.
code looks like,

module.exports = {
  siteMetadata: {
    title: `InfyOm Technologies`,
    description: `InfyOm Technologies`,
    keyword: `InfyOm Technologies`,
    author: `@gatsbyjs`,
    siteUrl: ``
  flags: {
  plugins: [
	resolve: `gatsby-plugin-sitemap`,
    options: {
      output: `/some-other-sitemap.xml`,
        exclude: [`/category/*`, `/path/to/page`],
NOTE: This plugin only generates an output when run in production mode! To test your sitemap, run: gatsby build && gatsby serve

now we are done and open sitemap using your domain. for ex.

September 28, 20201 minuteauthorShailesh Ladumor
As we discussed earlier that we cannot measure Employee Morale directly but we need to look at other organizational aspects. Let’s discuss which aspect we can use and how we can measure employee morale.

Measurement of Morale 
  • Observation 
  • Survey 
  • Periodic Interview
  • Attitude Measurement  
  • Opinion Analysis
  • Morale Indicators
    • Productivity
    • Absenteeism
    • Turnover
    • No. of accident
  • Use suggestion Box 


We can observe things like how employees are performing their role, their work attitude, and behavior at the workplace. These things can be done by superior by observing subordinates. However the observation method is not used frequently to measure Employee Morale as it has many demerits like overburden on employees, Superior may be bias etc.

We can use the Survey method to check morale levels in the organization. We can design  questions according to our purpose of measuring morale & Organizational Goals.

Periodic Interview
Management can ensure the efficiency of work by taking regular interviews in the organization. Management can do the job satisfaction survey to know the level of Morale in the organization.

Attitude Measurement 
The attitude survey is also known as the morale Survey. We can use the questionnaire or can take face-to-face personal interviews with employees. If the employee strength is high then we can use a random sampling method. We can design the question about their job, co-workers, Supervision, and Organization. But we need to pre-decide the questions & keep them in written documents. 

Opinion Analysis
We can do opinion analysis as well. We can ask for various quotations from employees regarding existing Policies, Strategies, Rules, and Regulations in the organization. 

Morale Indicators
We can use morale indicators like Productivity, Absenteeism, Turnover. No. of Accident etc. low Productivity, high Absenteeism, and high Turnover are signs of low morale in the organization. On the other hand, the high Productivity, low Absenteeism, low Turnover rate are the sign of high Employee Morale in organization. 

Use Suggestion Box
We can use a Suggestion Box where the employees can give their Inputs related to their work and workplace. By doing this we came to know about the employees’ likes & dislikes.

Importance of High Morale-
We cannot underestimate morale at our workplace as we know that happy employees are more productive. Job satisfaction matters to keep the workforce happy. Happy employees bring success to organizations by their efficient work, loyalty, and commitment which has a direct impact on organizational growth and profitability.

Demerits of Low Employee Morale-
The low morale leads to many problems in the organization as the employees are not happy with their work. high turnover, absenteeism, unclear expectation from both side Employees as well as Employer, increase in grievances and complain, lack of peaceful industrial relation, increase accident rate, Increase in industrial disputes, etc. there all problem decreased the profitability, competency in market & Goodwill, so the workforce with low morale seems dangerous for the organization.

To pen down, we can say that we need to take care of our employees, make them happy and they will take care of our business. For this, we need to maintain high morale in our organization.

September 25, 20203 minutesauthorMariyam Bemat
What is a recycler view?

  • RecyclerView is used to show the data in the form of a scrollable list. It is a ViewGroup to display a large set of data. For each item in a large dataset, it displays a View. So RecyclerView is very useful no use the scrollable list.

Why use RecyclerView in Android?

  • One reason is so we can create a List through the LinearLayout and the orientation can be vertical. For example, in the Facebook application, all parameters will be the same as share, comment, like, etc. Now if we will take LinearLayout, all the views will create separate views in the memory.
Add dependencies :

dependencies {  

    implementation "androidx.recyclerview:recyclerview:1.1.0"


  • Androidx in recycler view dependencies:  implementation "androidx.recyclerview:recyclerview:1.1.0"
  • Your android studio, not androidx:  implementation ''

Now we will add the RecyclerView layout in our activity_main.xml file

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>  
<RelativeLayout xmlns:android=""  
    android:layout_height="match_parent" />  

We create a layout file named row_layout.xml.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>  
<RelativeLayout xmlns:android=""  
    android:layout_height="match_parent" />  

We create a layout file named row_layout.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>  
<RelativeLayout xmlns:android=""  
        android:src="@color/colorPrimaryDark" />  
        android:textSize="30sp" />  

Create a Model Class :

public class Data {  
    public String name;  
    public String getName() {  
        return name;  
    public void setName(String name) {  = name;  
    public int getImageId() {  
        return imageId;  
    public void setImageId(int imageId) {  
        this.imageId = imageId;  
    public int imageId;  
    Data(String name, int imageId) {  = name;  
        this.imageId = imageId;  


public class RecyclerView_Adapter extends RecyclerView.Adapter<View_Holder> {  
    List<Data> list = Collections.emptyList();  
    Context context;  
    public RecyclerView_Adapter(List<Data> data, Application application) {  
        this.list = data;  
        this.context = application;  
    public View_Holder onCreateViewHolder(@NonNull ViewGroup parent, int viewType) {  
        //Inflate the layout, initialize the View Holder  
        View v = LayoutInflater.from(parent.getContext()).inflate(R.layout.row_layout, parent, false);  
        View_Holder holder = new View_Holder(v);  
        return holder;  
    public void onBindViewHolder(@NonNull View_Holder holder, int position) {  
        //Use the provided View Holder on the onCreateViewHolder method to populate the current row on the RecyclerView ;  
    public int getItemCount() {  
        return list.size();  

  • onCreateViewHolder()- It inflates the row layout and initializes the view holder. It handles findViewById) (methods, find views once, and recycle them so that repetitive calls are avoided.
  • onBindViewHolder()- It uses the onCreateViewHolder() View Holder to fill in the current RecyclerView row with data.
  • getItemCount()- This method returns the collection size which contains the items that we wish to show.
The code file of the ViewHolder Java class is listed below.

import android.view.View;  
import android.widget.ImageView;  
import android.widget.TextView;  
import androidx.recyclerview.widget.RecyclerView;  
public class View_Holder extends RecyclerView.ViewHolder {  
    TextView name;  
    ImageView imageView;  
    View_Holder(View itemView) {  
        name = (TextView) itemView.findViewById(;  
        imageView = (ImageView) itemView.findViewById(;  
} class file:

 public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity {  
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {  
        List<Data> data = fill_with_data();  
        RecyclerView recyclerView = (RecyclerView) findViewById(;  
        RecyclerView_Adapter adapter = new RecyclerView_Adapter(data, getApplication());  
        recyclerView.setLayoutManager(new LinearLayoutManager(this));  
    public List<Data> fill_with_data() {  
        List<Data> data = new ArrayList<>();  
        data.add(new Data("Android", R.drawable.c));  
        data.add(new Data("Kotlin",;  
		data.add(new Data("Kotlin", R.drawable.ccc));  
        return data; 

September 22, 20203 minutesauthorPankaj Valani

Recently in one of our client's project, we want to load the count of relation in laravel. But we do not want to retrieve original records.

For example,

We have the following Models,

  1. Category
  2. Products
  3. Orders

For that, we have categories, products, orders, order_items table. Where in the order_items table, we got the following fields

  • order_id
  • product_id
  • quantity

So the requirement was, In the Products table, we want to display the total number of orders placed with that item regardless of the quantity in each order. All we need is a number of orders where the product is purchased.

1st way: Query via Relationship

$products = Product::all();
$productsArr = $products->map(function (Product $product) {
    $productObj = $product->toArray();
    $productObj['orders_count'] = $product->orders()->count();
    return $productObj;

But the problem with this approach was, we are firing queries to the database for every single product. so if I'm retrieving 100 Products from the database then it will fire 100 additional queries to the database. Imagine if we have thousands of products.

2nd way: Eager Load Relationship and Calculate Count

$products = Product::with('orders')->get();
$productsArr = $products->map(function (Product $product) {
    $productObj = $product->toArray();
    $productObj['orders_count'] = $product->orders->count();
    return $productObj;

so this way, we are only firing two queries to the database. But the problem here is, we are loading all the Orders of each product which we don't need at all. so it will consume lots of memory since we are loading lots of orders. so imaging if we retrieve 100 products, and each product has 10 orders, then we are loading 1000 Orders into memory without any need.

3rd way: Use withCount function

The third powerful approach of using withCount function in Laravel. so we refactored our code like,

$products = Product::withCount('orders')->get();
$productsArr = $products->map(function (Product $product) {
    $productObj = $product->toArray();
    $productObj['orders_count'] = $product->getAttribute('orders_count');
    return $productObj;

In this approach, we are firing two queries but no Order models are loaded into memory.

4th Bonus: Using in a nested relationship while multiple eager loading

You can even use it with nested relationships. Imagine a case, where you want to retrieve categories along with its products with orders count.

$categories = Category::with([
    'products' => function ($query) {
$categoriesArr = $categories->map(function (Category $category) {
    $categoryObj = $category->toArray();
    $categoryObj['products'] = $category->products->map(function (Product $product) {
        $productObj = $product->toArray();
        $productObj['orders_count'] = $product->getAttribute('orders_count');
        return $productObj;
    return $categoryObj;

Hope this will help you to retrieve the count of relationship data without retrieving actual relation data.

September 18, 20202 minutesauthorMitul Golakiya
Different Types Of Software Testing 

Given below is the list of some common types of Software Testing: 

Accessibility Testing:

The purpose of accessibility testing is to determine whether the software or application is accessible to people with disabilities or not.  Here disability means deaf, color-blind, mentally disabled, blind, elderly, and other disabled groups.  Various checks are performed, such as font size for the visually impaired, color and contrast for color blindness, etc. 

Ad-Hoc Testing:

The name itself suggests that this test will be conducted on an ad hoc basis, i.e. without reference to the test case and also without a plan or documentation for such type of test.  The aim of this test is to find the flaws and breaks the application is executed by executing any sequence of application or random functionality.  Ad hoc testing is an informal way of finding bugs and can be done by anyone on the project.  It is difficult to identify bugs without a test case, but sometimes it is possible that bugs found in ad hoc tests were not identified using existing test cases. 
Alpha Testing:

It is the most common type of test used in the software industry.  The objective of this test is to identify all possible problems or defects before launching it to the market or to the user.  Alpha Testing takes place at the end of the software development phase but before Beta Testing.  Still, minor design changes can be made as a result of such testing.  Alpha testing is done on the developer's site.  An internal virtual user environment can be created for this type of test.

API Testing:

API testing is done for the system, which has a collection of APIs that should be tested.  During the test, a test of the following things is examined: explore the boundary conditions and ensure that the test harness varies the parameters of the API calls in order to verify functionality and expose faults.  Parameters. Checks the API behavior that is considering external environment conditions such as files, peripheral devices, etc. Check the sequence of API calls and check if the APIs produce useful results from subsequent calls. 

Beta Testing:

Beta tests, also known as user tests, are carried out by the end users at the end user's location to verify the usability, functionality, compatibility and reliability tests to provide input on the design, functionality and usability of a product.  These inputs are not only critical to the success of the product, but also an investment in future products if the data collected is effectively managed. 

Boundary Testing:

Boundary value analysis is a type of black box or specification based testing technique in which tests are performed using the boundary values.


An exam has a pass boundary at 50 percent, merit at 75 percent and distinction at 85 percent. The Valid Boundary values for this scenario will be as follows:

49, 50 - for pass
74, 75 - for merit
84, 85 - for distinction

Boundary values are validated against both the valid boundaries and invalid boundaries.
The Invalid Boundary Cases for the above example can be given as follows:

0 - for lower limit boundary value
101 - for upper limit boundary value
Bottom-Up Integration Testing:

Each component at the lower hierarchy is tested individually and then the components that rely upon these components are tested.

Bottom-Up Integration - Flow Diagram 

The order of Integration by Bottom-down approach will be:


Top-Down Integration Testing:

Top-down integration testing is an integration testing technique used in order to simulate the behavior of the lower-level modules that are not yet integrated. Stubs are the modules that act as temporary replacement for a called module and give the same output as that of the actual product.
The replacement for the 'called' modules is known as 'Stubs' and is also used when the software needs to interact with an external system.
topdown.PNG 59.36 KB

The above diagrams clearly states that Modules 1, 2 and 3 are available for integration, whereas, below modules are still under development that cannot be integrated at this point of time. Hence, Stubs are used to test the modules. The order of Integration will be:

2,Stub 1
2,Stub 2
3,Stub 3
3,Stub 4

Unit Testing:

Unit testing, which is a testing method by which individual units are tested to determine if there are any issues on the part of the developer themselves.  It is concerned with the functional health of the independent units. 

The main aim is to isolate each unit of the system to identify, analyze and fix the defects.

Unit Testing - Advantages:

  • Reduces errors in the newly developed functions or reduces errors when changing the existing functionality. 
  •  Reduces test costs as errors are detected at a very early stage.
  •   Improves the design and allows for better code redesign.
  •   Unit tests also show the quality of the build when integrated into Build. 
Unit Testing Lifecycle: 

unit testing life cycle.PNG 136.36 KB
Unit Testing Techniques:

  • Black Box Testing - Using which the user interface, input and output are tested.
  • White Box Testing - used to test each one of those functions' behavior is tested.
  • Gray Box Testing - Used to execute tests, risks and assessment methods. 
System Testing:

System testing (ST) is a black box testing technique performed to assess the complete system's compliance with specified requirements.  In system testing, the functionalities of the system are tested from an end-to-end perspective.  System testing is generally carried out by a team that is independent of the development team to measure the quality of the system in an unbiased manner.  Includes functional and non-functional tests. 

Types of System Tests:


Sanity Testing:

Sanity testing, which is a software testing method that the testing team performs for some basic tests.  The goal of the core test is to perform it whenever a new test architecture is received.  Terms such as smoke test, build validation test, basic acceptance test, or health test are used interchangeably, however, each of them is used under a slightly different scenario,
The sanity test is usually unwritten, and helps to identify missing dependent functions.  It is used to determine if the app partition is still working after making a slight change.  
The general health test can be both narrow and profound.  A mind test is a narrow regression test that focuses on one or several domains of functions. 

Smoke Testing:

The smoke test is a testing technique that is inspired by the hardware test, which checks for smoke from hardware components once the hardware is turned on.  Similarly, in the context of software testing, the smoke test refers to testing the basic functionality of the build.  If the test fails, the build is declared unstable and is NOT tested again until the build smoke test is passed. 

Smoke Testing - Features:

  • Identify the business-critical functions that a product must perform.  
  • Design and run the basic functions of the application. 
  •  Make sure the smoke test passes each and every build to continue testing.  
  • Smoke testing enables obvious errors to be revealed, saving time and effort .
  • Smoking testing can be manual or automated. 
Interface Testing:

Interface testing is performed to assess whether systems or components are passing data and properly controlling each other.  It is to check if all interactions between these modules are working properly and errors are handled properly. 

Interface Testing - Checklist

  • Check that communication between systems is done correctly
  •  Check if all supported hardware / software has been tested 
  • Check if all related documents are supported / open on all platforms
  •  Check security requirements or encryption when communicating between  application server systems 

Regression Testing:

Regression testing for a black box testing technique that consists of re-executing those tests that are affected by code changes.  These tests should be performed as much as possible throughout the software development life cycle. 

Types of Regression Tests:

  • Final Regression Tests: - A "final regression testing" is performed to validate the build that hasn't changed for a period of time. This build is deployed or shipped to customers.
  • Regression Tests: - A normal regression testing is performed to verify if the build has NOT broken any other parts of the application by the recent code changes for defect fixing or for enhancement.
Selecting Regression Tests:

  • Requires knowledge of the system and its effects on the existing functions.  
  • Tests are selected based on the area of ​​common failure. 
  •  Tests are chosen to include the area where code changes have been made multiple times. 
  •  Tests are selected based on the criticality of the features. 
 Regression Testing Steps:

  • Regression tests are the ideal cases of automation which results in better Return On Investment (ROI).
  • Select the regression tests.
  •   Choose apt tool and automate regression testing. 
  •  Verify applications with checkpoints. 
  •  Manage regression testing and update as needed.
  •   Schedule tests.
  •   Integrate with builds.
Load Testing:

Load testing is a performance testing technique using which the response of the system is measured under various load conditions. The load testing is performed for normal and peak load conditions

Load Testing Approach:

  • Evaluate performance acceptance criteria.
  •  Identify critical scenarios.
  •  Design the workload model.
  • Identify target load levels.
  •  Design the tests.
  •  Run the tests.
  • Analyze the results 
Objectives of Load Testing:

  • Response time.
  •  Resource usage rate.
  •  Maximum user load.
  • Work-related metrics 
Stress Testing:

Stress testing is a non-functional testing technique performed as part of performance testing.  During stress testing, the system is monitored after overloading the system to ensure that the system can withstand the stress. System recovery from this phase (after stress) is very critical as it is very  likely to occur in the production environment. 

Reasons for performing stress tests: 

  • This allows the test team to monitor the performance of the system during failures. 
  • To check if the system saved data before crashing or NOT. 
  • To check if the system is printing messages  Significant error during a failure or if it has printed random exceptions 
  • To check whether unexpected failures do not lead to safety issues 
Stress Tests - Scenarios: 

  • Monitor the behavior of the system when the maximum number of  'users are logged in at the same time
  •  All users performing critical operations at the same time
  •  All users Accessing the same file
  •  Hardware issues such as the downed database server or some of the servers in a downing farm  breakdown. 
Compatibility Testing:

Compatibility testing is a non-functional testing conducted on the application to evaluate the application's compatibility within different environments. It can be of two types - forward compatibility testing and backward compatibility testing.

  • Operating system Compatibility Testing - Linux, macOS, Windows
  • Database Compatibility Testing - Oracle SQL Server
  • Browser Compatibility Testing - IE, Chrome, Firefox
  • Other System Software - Web server, networking/ messaging tool, etc.
Localization Testing:

Localization testing is a software testing technique by which software behavior is tested for a specific region, locality, or culture.  The purpose of conducting the localization test for a program is to test the appropriate linguistic and cultural aspects of a particular site. 

Software Testing Methods

There are various methods for testing software. These methods are chosen by testers based on their requirements and methodologies. But three fundamental software testing methods are used in every project development.

Types of Software Testing Methods and Levels

  • White Box Testing
  • Black Box Testing
  • Grey Box Testing
White Box Testing & Levels

The White Box Test is also known as the Open / Clear Box Test / Glass Box Test.  From a developer's perspective, it is known as Code Oriented Testing / Structural Testing.  In This type of testing, technical tests can be performed within the internal structure, logical design and implementation of different modules.  Here, the tester uses preferred input / exercise paths via code to determine the correct or exact output.  is known as code-oriented testing, it contains technical tests and script-based tests as part of its testing phase. 

White Box Testing Levels

  • Unit Testing
  • Integration Testing
  • System Testing
Black Box Testing & Levels

This test is known as a behavior test, in which the software tests the internal structure, design and implementation, as well as the user interface and UX of the software under test, which are not known to the tester.  Black box tests are both functional and non-functional, but most of the time they are functional.  This testing technique is known as black box testing because the software or product is not known / confirmed to the tester in advance. 
Using this technique of testing to find errors in these mentioned categories:

  • Software malfunction.
  •  Error in interface.
  •  Errors in concepts.
  •  Errors related to the database.
  • Performance or behavior errors.
  • Errors in product startup or termination 
Black Box Testing Levels

  • Integration Testing
  • System Testing
  • Acceptance Testing
Grey Box Testing & Levels

In this software testing technique, it combines the concept of black box and white box testing.  In the gray box test, the inside of your product is partly known to the tester.  This has partial access to data structures residing internally to design different test cases, but at the same time testing from a user's perspective or as a black box tester. 

“Still There are various methods for testing software. These methods are chosen by testers based on their requirements and methodologies.”
September 18, 202011 minutesauthorBhumi Khimani
Here is part one of How To Grow Your Business - 1

You can only develop products and services that are very effective if you pay attention to the needs of your customers and prospects. One way to understand exactly what your customers want is through research and surveys.

8. Create a sales funnel
The first way to grow your business faster is by creating a sales funnel. If you do not have a sales funnel, you are making a big mistake. Sales funnels can help automate your business.
It helps you grow and grow quickly and easily. Sure, there are some front-end functions involved. Is natural. But, once those processes are suspended, it will travel easily from there.

9. Use a customer management system
Manually tracking transactions is difficult. No one wants to do that. It becomes a burden as the business grows. If you want to scale quickly, use a customer management system.

10. Competition research
When going to the market, and you are really looking to get your offer out to the public, you need to research the competition. Frasier says he uses two platforms to do his own research. The first is the same web.

11. Create a customer loyalty program
Loyalty programs are the best way to increase sales. It costs three times more to acquire new customers than to sell something to an existing customer.
Other resources pin this number anywhere from four to 10 times more. However, whichever way you cut it, getting new customers is expensive.

12. Identify new opportunities
Analyze new opportunities in your business by better understanding your demographics. Understand everything from distribution channels to your direct competitors, and also analyze overseas markets and other potential industries.
With the right amount of potential analysis, you are likely to immediately pursue dozens of new opportunities.

13. Create an email list
One of the best and most effective ways to grow a business quickly is to create an email list. Clearly, that means you need to have a lead magnet.

14. Think of the franchise model.
If you have a successful business, and you are trying to grow really fast, consider franchising it. Although franchise costs are high and moving towards a franchise model is complex and it takes a lot in marketing, how can it all make a difference if you are looking for really fast growth.
September 15, 20202 minutesauthorAnkit Kalathiya
We all know that human behavior is difficult to understand & explain yet we need to take care of our Human Capital to develop & maintain the productivity & profitability of the organization.

In the last blog, we have discussed what is Morale, Characteristics of Morale, Relation between morale and Productivity. Let’s  move further to-

   Factors determining morale
  Measurement of Morale: why ??

Factors Determining morale :    
  • Sound & Effective Organisation
  • Opportunity to rise 
  • Remuneration 
  • Personal attributes
  • satisfaction level
  • Supervision level
  • Nature of work

 It may sound surprising but the Organisation Itself plays a significant role in shaping an employee's attitude. The NAME & FAME  of the Organisation plays vital roles to determine employee morale. The Reputation of the organization builds the attitude of their employee better or worse towards it... For Instance- Someone who works for Google is more likely to take ownership in comparison to the person who is working for a small XYZ software company.

2- Opportunity to rise- 
If the person found their personal growth within the organization, it boosts the morale of an employee. On the other side  no possibility of personal growth decrease Morale of the employee 

3-Personal attributes -
Physical and mental health also play a major role in determining employee Morale. If the person is not physically or mentally fit for a particular role, this can be an obstacle in learning and progress at the workplace It leads to low morale.

It's a vital factor to determine the level of employee morale, If the employee feels he/she discriminates based on pay scale it leads to dissatisfaction with the organization.

5-Satisfaction level-
If employees are satisfied with the Work role, there will be more energy in the system. Satisfaction arrived from various factors such as Company image, Pay scale, Working conditions, Growth opportunities, Welcoming attitude of new ideas, learning attitudes, Training, etc.

6- Supervision Level- 
The level of supervision received by an employee is a tremendous factor that affects morale. More the supervision, less the enthusiasm. No one likes a big boss over his/her head. Too much monitoring and supervision make people feel nervous and this hampers the performance rather than improving it.

7-Nature of work- 
The nature of work also plays a significant role in employee morale. If the work is repetitive or involve long working hours it affect employee morale negatively 

Measurement of Morale-

The big question is why we need to measure employee morale ???? 

The company depends on employees for Everything from production to accounting & finance (Profit & loss ). If they are happy, they perform their job more efficiently which upsurge the success of the business as well as profitability. On the other side, poor employee Morale can harm Business-dropping productivity and raising the turnover rate.
While running the business we should constantly pay attention to our employee morale to maintain the health of the organization.

While measuring Employee Morale we need to consider following things-

  • Ask the right question 
  • Don’t ask anything in annoying way
  • Follow the performance data first 
  • Take the employee of the clock 
  • Listen to what they say
  • Keep eye on their project 

Well, Employee morale is a broad concept. To know more about Employee Morale please read my upcoming blog…

In the next blog, we will see Measurement of employee morale, Significance of high morale, Demerits of low morale…..

September 13, 20203 minutesauthorMariyam Bemat