Software testing is the most common way of executing a program determined to track down the blunder. Our software needs to be error-free in order to perform well. The software will be free of all errors if the testing is successful.
7 Principles of Software Testing
There are seven principles of software testing as below:
- Testing shows the presence of defects
- Exhaustive testing is not possible
- Early testing
- Defect clustering
- Pesticide paradox
- Testing is context-dependent
- Absence of errors fallacy
- Principles of Software Testing
1) Testing shows the presence of defects
The application will be tested by the test engineer to ensure that there are no bugs or defects. During testing, we can only determine whether the software or application contains any errors. The majority of testing should be able to be traced back to the customer’s requirements, which means finding any flaws that might prevent the product from meeting the customer’s needs. This is the primary goal of testing, which uses a variety of methods and testing techniques to count the number of unknown bugs.
We can reduce the number of bugs in any application by testing it. However, this does not guarantee that the application is free of defects; software may appear bug-free after multiple types of testing. However, if the end-user encounters bugs that were not discovered during the testing process, they will be fixed at the time of deployment on the production server.
2) Exhaustive Testing is not possible
During the actual testing process, it sometimes appears to be very difficult to test all the modules and their features with effective and ineffective combinations of the input data.
As a result, rather than carrying out extensive testing, which necessitates endless calculations and results in failure for the majority of the effort, Because the product timelines prevent us from carrying out such testing scenarios, we are able to complete these variations based on the importance of the modules.
On-demand software testing pricing
3) Early Testing
In this context, “early testing” refers to all testing activities that should begin in the “requirement analysis stage” of the software development life cycle in order to find defects. This is because if we find bugs early enough, they can be fixed right away, which may save us a lot of money over bugs that are found later in the testing process.
We will need the documents for the requirement specification in order to carry out testing; Therefore, rather than addressing the issue at a later stage, such as the development phase, if the requirements are incorrectly defined, they can be addressed immediately.
4) Defect clustering
During the testing process, we can identify the number of bugs that are correlated to a small number of modules using defect clustering. This is due to a number of factors, including the modules’ potential complexity; The coding might be hard, and so on.
The Pareto Principle, states that we are able to identify that approximately, will apply to these kinds of software or applications. Twenty percent of the modules contain eighty percent of the complications. We can find the uncertain modules with this, but if the same tests are running on a regular basis, this method can be difficult, and the same test won’t be able to find new defects.
5) Pesticide paradox
This principle stated that the software or application will not be able to detect new bugs if the same set of test cases is run repeatedly over a predetermined period of time. It is critical to frequently review all test cases in order to overcome these pesticide paradoxes. Additionally, new and distinct tests must be written for the implementation of multiple software or application components to aid in the discovery of additional bugs.
6) Testing is context-dependent
According to the context-dependent principle of testing, there are a variety of market sectors, including commercial websites, e-commerce websites, and so forth. Because each application has its own requirements, features, and functionality, there is a certain method for testing commercial and e-commerce websites. To check this sort of use, we will take the assistance of different sorts of testing, different procedure, approaches, and various strategies. As a result, the application’s context determines the testing.
Functional vs non-functional testing
7) Absence of errors fallacy
We can say that the application is 99 percent bug-free once it has been tested thoroughly and no bugs have been found before it is released. However, there is a possibility that if the application is tested alongside the incorrect requirements, flaws will be discovered, and they will need to be fixed within a certain time frame. This is because the testing is done on the incorrect specification, which does not correspond to the client’s requirements. According to the absence of error fallacy, if the application is impractical and unable to fulfil the requirements and needs of the client, then identifying and fixing bugs would not be helpful.
In today’s competitive world, testing is critical to the success of any software product. Manual tests are important in software development because they can be used in situations where automated testing isn’t possible. This Blog about Manual Testing Interview Questions will help you learn software testing.
With this thorough list of over 120 manual testing interview questions and answers, you’ll be ready for your software testing interviews. These manual testing interview questions are appropriate for both fresher and experienced candidates.
Let’s start by going through some of the most common Manual Testing Interview Questions.
120+ Manual Testing Interview Questions:
Below are the 120+ manual testing interview questions and answers:
1) What is Software Testing?
Software testing is a process to test whether the actual product is matched with an expected requirement or not and if getting an issue then it could be resolved before the released product to the market and at last ensure that product is bug-free.
2) What is manual testing?
Manual testing is a type of testing that involves the validation of the requirements of the application by executing a predefined set of test cases manually without the use of any automation tool.
3) Why is Software Testing Required?
Software testing is a process that verifies the product is secure and good enough to be released to the market. The reason for software testing is to find defects, errors, and unmatched or missing requirements compared to the actual requirement.
- It points out the bug and error which is made during the development.
- If identify issues at the starting stage of development, then we can reduce the coding cycles.
- Ensure that product is defect-free, and the product meets the market standard.
- Make sure that the application doesn’t result in any failures.
4) What are the two main categories of software testing?
Software testing is a vast domain, but it can be categorized into two types, such as:
- Manual Testing– Manual testing is the oldest type of software testing where the tester executes all test cases without using any tools, mean-tested whole application manually by QA testers.
- Automation Testing– Automation Testing is the process of executing repeating predefined test cases using an automation testing tool. The main focus of automation testing is replacing manual activity with automated test cases
5) Do you know the difference between quality control and quality assurance?
|Quality Control||Quality Assurance|
|Quality Control is a product-based approach of running a program to define if the application has any defect, as well as make sure software fulfils all the requirements.||Quality assurance is a process-oriented approach that focuses on making sure that the methods, techniques used to make quality deliverables are applied correctly.|
|QA means planning for doing any testing process.||QC means doing action for executing the planned process.|
|QA does not involve executing the test cases.||QC is always involved in executing the test cases.|
|QA is the technique of handling the quality of the application.||QC is a method to verify the quality of software|
6) What is quality control? Is it similar to Quality Assurance?
Quality control is a product-based strategy of running a program to define if it has any defect, as well as create sure software fulfils all requirements with end-user.
So, Quality control is not similar to Quality assurance, Quality assurance is a process-oriented approach. It is focused only on process, methods, and techniques which is used to create quality deliverables that are applied correctly.
7) What different types of manual testing are there?
Manual testing is divided into different types, which are listed below:
- Acceptance Testing
- System Testing
- Black Box Testing
- White Box Testing
- Unit Testing
- Integration Testing
8) Explain the difference between alpha testing and beta testing.
Alpha and beta both testing types are types of user acceptance testing. Find the brief description of alpha vs beta testing here.
- Alpha Testing – Alpha testing is a process that is performed before realizing the product to identify a bug.
- Beta Testing – Beta testing is a process that is performed by the end-user after realizing the product.
9) What are the different levels of manual testing?
We have different 4 levels of manual testing, which is described below:
- Unit testing – Unit testing is testing where we test separate units or the smallest pieces of source code. The goal of unit testing is to separate all parts and show that all parts are worked without any defect.
- Integration Testing – It is a type of testing where individual units are combined and tested there is no bug after integrating the separate units.
- System Testing – System testing is defined as the testing of the whole integrated product. System testing is black-box testing, and it is performed in the form of a functional requirement specification.
- User Acceptance Testing – User acceptance testing is a final level of testing, UAT is performed by the end-user or client. In UAT testing verify that software or product is ready to be released or not into the real world.
10) What is a test in manual testing?
The tested environment is used for application testing; we can test hardware as well as software programs also. The test consists of hardware, network configuration, software, and other related software.
11) Explain the procedure for manual testing.
In The manual testing process, follow the below steps:
- Project Planning and Control
- Project Design
- Test case Execution
- Evaluating exit criteria and Reporting
- Test Closure activities
12) What is the test case?
One type of document that has a set of conditions that is performed on the particular application in order to verify the expected result of the feature is called a test case.
Test case documents include test steps, preconditions, postconditions, test data, and verification requirements.
13) What is API testing?
Perform software testing API directly from their functionality, reliability, security, and performance in API testing.
The application has three separate layers:
- First is the Presentation Layer or user interface.
- The second layer is Business Layer or application user interface for business logic processing.
- The third and last layer is Database Layer for
14) Do you know the difference between verification and validation in testing?
Verification testing is done without executing the code. Verification is a static technique. Verification is coming before validation. Verification is the process where to verify the quality of the product. Verification is to reduce the chances of failure in the product.
Validation testing is including the execution of the code. Validation is dynamic testing. Validation comes after Verification. Validation is the process in which the actual requirements of the customer match with the software functionality. Validation is done after completing the development process.
15) Do you know the difference between a bug and a defect?
The tester finds fault in the software during testing it is called a bug and when a product goes to live that time developer detects the difference between the actual result and the expected result is called a defect.
What Is ERP Testing?
Before going into ERP testing, we've to know about the ERP. ERP stands for Enterprise Resource Planning.ERP Testing is critical since each business can customise its workflow depending on the needs of their organisation. When doing ERP testing, the tester has got to understand the business workflows, data flows, and ERP modules. Then only he/she are going to be ready to test and ensure the system implementation is suiting their organisation.
How To Do ERP Testing?
ERP Testing mainly focuses generally on functional testing and performance testing. The next preference is given for the mixing between the modules and therefore the data flows. ERP testing are often done either manually or automatically. ERP testing are often wiped out the below phases:
Identify the business processes and define the scope of testing.
Setting up a test system. Prepare Test Plan. Prepare the test suites. Create test data sets. Write test cases.(manual/automated) Test Execution. Prepare Test Reports.
Different Types Of ERP Testing
Functional Testing: Functional testing will cover the aspects of compatibility, localisation, integration with other systems, etc. The testing are often done either manually or by automation. This is the primary testing type got to be conducted since the functional workflow should work flawlessly. After functional testing completed, the opposite sorts of testing got to be performed. The testing are often done by manual or automated testing.
Integration Testing: Integration testing usually conducted when an application is interacting with multiple components. The components need to be tested individually. After the completion of the testing of the modules, it must be tested with all components as an entire workflow. Then only the system should work sort of a single unit at the top after integration seamlessly.
Performance Testing: Performance testing usually conducted to make sure what percentage users can access the system at an equivalent time and what's the reaction time during that. The user volume and therefore the concurrent usage are going to be more after the implementation of ERP systems. It is critical to try to to the performance testing of the ERP system since it's to interact with multiple applications.
Security Testing: Security testing is conducted to make sure that the system follows the quality security policies and rules. It helps to spot risks, threats, and vulnerabilities of the system. After identifying the vulnerabilities, those should be fixed and tested before the implementation of the ERP system.