User Acceptance Technique is widely used for its efficiency and effectiveness.If we followed all steps of User Acceptance correctly then it will increase the satisfaction of a Customer.
UAT is a process of verifying that a Software or a System works appropriately as per the User Requirement.The main purpose of this testing is to ensure that a software system is all set to be in front of users in a real world.This testing phase also known as Beta and End-user testing and is mostly considered during the web development process to ensure that software is ready for the final installation for the Client site.
Types of User Acceptance Testing
- Alpha & Beta Testing: Alpha testing is done by the staff members only on an internal whereas beta testing includes the Customer's environment with the help of some customer who will going to use our System or Software.
- Black Box Testing: This type of functional testing includes all functionalities of the System without knowing the internal code structure.
- Contract Acceptance Testing: In Contract type testing, software is tested against some criteria which are already predefined in a proper contract.
- Operational Acceptance Testing: This type of Acceptance testing ensure that all the workflow used in system are working properly.
- Regulation Acceptance Testing: Compliance Acceptance Testing helps in investigate the software fulfils all the guidelines of legal and governmental process.
Criteria Before Perform User Acceptance Testing
- Entire application code should be up to date.
- Integration testing, unit testing and System testing must be completed before we perform User Acceptance Testing.
- There should not be any high/medium faults in the Integration phase of Testing.
- There must be no major defect in the Regression Testing.
- All the error/defects must get solved which we face during the testing and then testing should be done again to verify the error got fixed or not.
Involvement of Users in User Acceptance Testing:
The group is most essential for the UAT must include real end users that will going to perform a test on your system.The stakeholder and other group must incorporated that means an individual of every group is involved in the development phase must be in the team.
Start User Acceptance Testing:
After the explanation of UAT as above, you must get clear about what and why UAT must include in the software development phase. Mainly there are total of four steps that must be considered but it will depend on the number of user that will take advantage of software. The main criteria that must be followed in the software are the ‘working’ requirement of the assembled application. You can easily get a hang of it from the stories of users or system requirements. The second step is to create some test cases for UAT. User Acceptance Testcases are the test steps sets, expected results and execution conditions must be developed for some specific purpose.
These are some main points of the User Acceptance Testing that is used in the development cycle. The projects are reduced to the like of any errors that are elevated and it will reduce the total work required in the maintenance or development phase. On above all of that , you will get a happy and satisfied user that will give you more revenue.
What is Use Case Testing and How to Prepare a Test Case for Testing?
In the phases and life cycle of software development, use case plays an important role. The entire process depends on the actions of the user and the response by the system to the actions. Hence it can be seen as documentation of the actions which is performed by the user or actor and then the corresponding interaction by the system to those actions. Not all the use cases result in achieving the goal by a user to the interactions with the system.
In a use case, the system responds to the situation or behavior. It is user-oriented rather than system-oriented. That is, they are actions that are done by the actor/user and not the output produced by the system. Hence the development team writes the ‘use cases’ as this phase depends on them. The writer of use cases, a team of development, customers, all of them together contribute towards the creation of use cases and testing.
What is Use Case Document?
Use case documentation helps to complete an overview of all the several ways in which the user interacts with the system to achieve the desired objective. The documentation will help to check the requirements for the software system and what is lacking in this process.
Who will use the Use Case Document?
As the documentation helps to get an overview of ways in which users can interact with the system, better documentation is always required for easier results. This documentation will be useful to the software developers and software testers along with the stakeholders.
There are several types of uses for these documents. It helps developers to implement the code and design the same. Further, testers use them to create test cases. Business stakeholders, on other hand, use the documentation in order to understand how the software works and their respective requirements.
Elements in Use Case Testing
The major elements of the use cases are brief introductions which help to explain the case.
- Actor, that is, the users which are involved in use case actions.
- Precondition, which is the conditions that need to be satisfied before the case begins.
- Basic Flow, or the main scenario which is a normal workflow in the system. In other words, this is a flow of transactions done by actors to accomplish their goals.
- Alternate flow, which is a less common interaction done by an actor with a system
- Exception flow, which prevents a user from achieving the goal
- Postconditions that are required to be checked after the case is finished.
How to Prepare Test cases?
It is best if the test cases for the main scenario are written first and then written second for alternate steps. These steps in test cases are from use case documents. Cases are supposed to be required as steps and the user or actor must be able to enter the same. Test design techniques can be used and developed to help reduce the number of test cases which can help reduce the time taken for testing.
Writing test cases and testing is an iterative process. Practice and knowledge of domain and system are required in this case. Using case testing in applications can be used to find missing links and incomplete requirements. Finding and modifying the same will bring efficiency and accuracy into the system domain.
Why Is Cross-Browser Testing Important?
Which types of issues facing in cross-browser testing?
- Missing CSS resets
- Font size and image orientation mismatch
- No support for HTML5
- Inconsistent page alignment
- Layout incompatibility with browser
- Mismatches in frameworks or library versions
What Measures Are Involved in Cross-Browser Testing?
Compatibility testing includes everything, but you may not always have the time for that. To do it right, product teams constrain their testing with a test specification document (test specs) which outlines broad essentials—a list of features to test, what browsers/versions/ platforms to test on in order to meet the compatibility benchmark, test scenarios, timelines, and budget.You can categorise the features that will undergo testing like this:
- Base Functionality: To ensure that basic functionality works on most browser-OS combinations. For example, you could be testing to verify that:
- All dialogs boxes and menus are working as intended
- All form fields accept inputs after validating them correctly
- Website handles first-party cookies (and features like personalisation that are dependent on them) correctly seamless touch input for mobiles or tablets.
- Design: This ensures that the website’s appearance—fonts, images, and layout—matches the specifications shared by the Design team.
- Accessibility: Accounts for compliance with Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) to enable differently-abled users to access the website.
- Responsiveness: Verifies that design is fluid and fits different screen sizes/orientations.
Agile testing is a software testing process that follows the principles of agile software development. Agile testing methodology aligns with iterative Development Methodology in which requirements develop gradually from customers and testing teams. The development is aligned with customer requirements.
The agile testing process is a continuous process rather than being sequential. The testing begins at the start of the project and there is ongoing integration between testing and development. The common objective of agile development and testing is to achieve high product quality.
Agile Testing Methods
Behavior Driven Development
Behavior Driven Development (BDD) improves communication amongst project stakeholders so that all members correctly understand each feature before the development process starts. There is continuous example-based communication between developers, testers, and business analysts.
Acceptance Test Driven Development
ATDD focuses on involving team members with different perspectives such as the customer, developer, and tester. Three Amigos meetings are held to formulate acceptance tests incorporating perspectives of the customer, development, and testing. The customer is focused on the problem that is to be solved, the development is focused on how the problem will be solved whereas the testing is focused on what could go wrong. The acceptance tests are a representation of the user’s point of view and describe how the system will function. It also helps to verify that the system functions as it is supposed to. In some instances acceptance tests are automated.
In this type of testing, the test design and test execution phase go hand in hand. Exploratory testing emphasises working software over comprehensive documentation. The individuals and interactions are more important than the process and tools. Customer collaboration holds greater value than contract negotiation. Exploratory testing is more adaptable to changes. In this testers identify the functionality of an application by exploring the application. The testers try to learn the application, and design & execute the test plans according to their findings.
Agile Testing Life Cycle
The agile testing life cycle includes the following 5 phases:
Impact assessment - Gather input from stakeholders and users, this will act as feedback for the next deployment cycle.
Agile Testing Planning - All stakeholders come together to plan the schedule of the testing process, meeting frequency, and deliverables.
Release Readiness - In this stage, we review the features that have been developed/implemented are ready to go live or not.
Daily Scrums - Daily standup meeting includes everyday meetings to catch up on the status of testing and set the goals for the whole day.
- Agility Review - Weekly review meeting with stakeholder meeting to review and assess the progress against milestones.
Agile testing not only facilitates the early detection of defects but also reduces the cost of bugs by fixing them early. This approach also yields a customer-centric approach by delivering a high-quality product as early as possible.