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Manual Testing Interview Questions – Every QA Should Read [Part - 2]

Manual Testing Interview Questions – Every QA Should Read

In today’s competitive world, testing is critical to the success of any software product. Manual tests are important in software development because they can be used in situations where automated testing isn’t possible. This Blog about Manual Testing Interview Questions will help you learn software testing.

With this thorough list of over 120 manual testing interview questions and answers, you’ll be ready for your software testing interviews. These manual testing interview questions are appropriate for both fresher and experienced candidates.

Let’s start by going through some of the most common Manual Testing Interview Questions.

16) What are the advantages of manual testing?

  • Manual testing is cheaper as compared to automation testing.
  • Point of view of an end-user, product analysis is possible only in manual testing.
  • Using manual testing you can also be done GUI testing accurately because using automation difficult to test visual accessibility and preferences.
  • Manual testing is used where the test script is not repeated and reused more times and mainly for short-term projects.
  • Manual testing is best at an early stage of development.

17) What are the drawbacks of manual testing?

  • Some types of testing are not possible to do manually like load testing, performance testing, etc.
  • Sometimes testing is more time-consuming than manual testing like regression testing.
  • Manual testing has a limited scope as compared to automation testing.
  • For long-term projects, manual testing is very expensive.

18) What’s the role of documentation in Manual Testing?

Documentation plays an important role in achieving good software testing. In the documentation, we are including details like project requirements and specifications, designs, basic business rules, inspection reports, configurations, test planning, test cases, bug reporting, user manual, etc.

Using test cases documentation will easy to estimate the testing efforts that will need to spend with test tracking and tracing requirements. Some of the applied documentation associated with software testing are listed below:

  • Test Plan
  • Test Scenario
  • Test Case
  • Traceability Matrix

19)What makes a good test engineer?

A software test engineer is any professional who ensures that the product meets all the expectations and requirements. A software test engineer creates a process for testing a particular product.

  • A good tester should easily understand the priority of the task and should have the ability to take the requirements of the customer.
  • A good test engineer should have the ability to assert his ideas to maintain a cooperative relationship with developers Tester has the ability to communicate which he can report a bug for negative things positively with developers as well as with customers and management people also.
  • Ability to take a risk whenever they need to make important decisions

20) What is the test harness?

A test harness is the cluster of software and test information. Into the test harness test a program unit by running it in a different environment like pressure, load, data-driven, and observing its behavior, reaction, and outcomes. Test Harness is mainly divided into two parts:

  • A Test Execution Engine
  • Test script repository

21) What is test closure?

Test closure is a document that has a summary of all test cases which is made during the software development life cycle. Test closure has also detail about the analysis and remove bugs and errors found. Test closure also contains a report of executed test cases, total no. of open bugs, total no. of rejected bugs.

22) Do you know, the difference between Positive and Negative Testing?

Positive Testing Negative Testing
Positive testing ensures that the application working as an expected result, if not then the test is fails Negative testing ensures that the application can handle the input or unwanted user behaviour.
In this testing, the tester tests the application with a valid set of data. In this testing, tester test the application with an invalid set of data and check their creativity and validation against invalid data.

23) Define what is a critical bug.

A critical bug is a bug that is the impacts a major functionality of the given application. This means affecting a large area of the functionality or breaking any functionality and there is no other method to overcome this problem. The application cannot be delivered to the end-user unless the critical bug is fixed.

24) What is the pesticide paradox? How to overcome it?

Based on the pesticide paradox, if the same tests are carried out again and again then the outcome of these test cases are the same, so for the same test cases tester is not able to find new bugs. Developers will be extra careful in those parts where the tester found more bugs and might not look into the other areas.

Below describe Methods to prevent pesticide paradox are following:

  • Write a whole new different set of test cases continually to exercise different parts of the software.
  • On daily basis review the existing test cases and add new test cases to them.

Using these above methods, it is possible that we can find more bugs in the segment where bug numbers are dropped.

25) What is Defect Cascading in Software Testing?

Defect Cascading is the action of triggering other defects in the application. During testing, while defects go unnoticed then other defects are invoked. As an outcome, a greater number of defects crop up in the later stage of development. If defect cascading continues then impact on other components of the application and determining the affected component becomes more difficult. You can make different test cases for resolving this issue but it is very difficult and time-consuming.

26) What is the term ‘quality’ mean when testing?

Quality software is defect-free, delivered on time and within budget, meets conditions and expectations, and is maintainable. Still ‘Quality’ is a personal term. Quality will depend on who the ‘customer’ is and their overall influence in the scheme of things. The accounting department might define quality in terms of earnings while an end-user might describe quality as user-supportive and defect-free.

27) What is black box testing, and what are the various techniques?

Black Box testing also known as specification-based testing, analyses the functionality of the software without knowing about the internal structure of the application. The goal of this testing is to check the whole workflow of the system is works correctly and meets user demands. Various black box testing techniques are listed below:

  • Equivalence Partitioning
  • Boundary Value Analysis
  • Decision Table Based Technique
  • Cause-effect Graphing
  • Use Case Testing

28) What is white box testing, and what are the various techniques?

White-box testing is also known as structure-based testing, for white box testing requires knowledge of the internal structure of the application. The purpose of this testing is to improve design and usability, check the flow of input/outputs, enhance security. Below are the various kind of white box testing techniques:

  • Statement Coverage
  • Decision Coverage
  • Condition Coverage
  • Multiple Condition Coverage

29) What are the Experience-based testing techniques?

Experienced-based testing is all about finding, research, and learning. The tester continuously studies and analyses the product and accordingly applies his skills, trick, and experience to develop test strategies and test cases to perform necessary testing. Various experience-based testing techniques are:

  • Exploratory testing
  • Error Guessing

30) What is a top-down and bottom-up approach to testing?

Top-Down – Testing occurs from top to bottom. This is, high-level modules are tested first and after that low-level modules. Lastly, the low-level modules are integrated into a high-level state to guarantee the framework is working as it is expected to.

Bottom-Up – Testing occurs from base levels to high-up levels. The lowest level modules are tested first and thereafter high-level state modules. Lastly, the high-level state modules are corresponded to a low level to guarantee the framework is filling in as it has been proposed to.

February 03, 20236 minutesVirendra HarkhaniVirendra Harkhani
Manual Testing Interview Questions – Every QA Should Read

Manual Testing Interview Questions – Every QA Should Read

In today’s competitive world, testing is critical to the success of any software product. Manual tests are important in software development because they can be used in situations where automated testing isn’t possible. This Blog about Manual Testing Interview Questions will help you learn software testing.

With this thorough list of over 120 manual testing interview questions and answers, you’ll be ready for your software testing interviews. These manual testing interview questions are appropriate for both fresher and experienced candidates.

Let’s start by going through some of the most common Manual Testing Interview Questions.

120+ Manual Testing Interview Questions:

Below are the 120+ manual testing interview questions and answers:

1) What is Software Testing?

Software testing is a process to test whether the actual product is matched with an expected requirement or not and if getting an issue then it could be resolved before the released product to the market and at last ensure that product is bug-free.

2) What is manual testing?

Manual testing is a type of testing that involves the validation of the requirements of the application by executing a predefined set of test cases manually without the use of any automation tool.

3) Why is Software Testing Required?

Software testing is a process that verifies the product is secure and good enough to be released to the market. The reason for software testing is to find defects, errors, and unmatched or missing requirements compared to the actual requirement.

  • It points out the bug and error which is made during the development.
  • If identify issues at the starting stage of development, then we can reduce the coding cycles.
  • Ensure that product is defect-free, and the product meets the market standard.
  • Make sure that the application doesn’t result in any failures.

4) What are the two main categories of software testing?

Software testing is a vast domain, but it can be categorized into two types, such as:

  • Manual Testing– Manual testing is the oldest type of software testing where the tester executes all test cases without using any tools, mean-tested whole application manually by QA testers.
  • Automation Testing– Automation Testing is the process of executing repeating predefined test cases using an automation testing tool. The main focus of automation testing is replacing manual activity with automated test cases

5) Do you know the difference between quality control and quality assurance?

Quality Control Quality Assurance
Quality Control is a product-based approach of running a program to define if the application has any defect, as well as make sure software fulfils all the requirements. Quality assurance is a process-oriented approach that focuses on making sure that the methods, techniques used to make quality deliverables are applied correctly.
QA means planning for doing any testing process. QC means doing action for executing the planned process.
QA does not involve executing the test cases. QC is always involved in executing the test cases.
QA is the technique of handling the quality of the application. QC is a method to verify the quality of software

6) What is quality control? Is it similar to Quality Assurance?

Quality control is a product-based strategy of running a program to define if it has any defect, as well as create sure software fulfils all requirements with end-user.

So, Quality control is not similar to Quality assurance, Quality assurance is a process-oriented approach. It is focused only on process, methods, and techniques which is used to create quality deliverables that are applied correctly.

7) What different types of manual testing are there?

Manual testing is divided into different types, which are listed below:

  • Acceptance Testing
  • System Testing
  • Black Box Testing
  • White Box Testing
  • Unit Testing
  • Integration Testing

8) Explain the difference between alpha testing and beta testing.

Alpha and beta both testing types are types of user acceptance testing. Find the brief description of alpha vs beta testing here.

  • Alpha Testing – Alpha testing is a process that is performed before realizing the product to identify a bug.
  • Beta Testing – Beta testing is a process that is performed by the end-user after realizing the product.

9) What are the different levels of manual testing?

We have different 4 levels of manual testing, which is described below:

  • Unit testing – Unit testing is testing where we test separate units or the smallest pieces of source code. The goal of unit testing is to separate all parts and show that all parts are worked without any defect.
  • Integration Testing – It is a type of testing where individual units are combined and tested there is no bug after integrating the separate units.
  • System Testing – System testing is defined as the testing of the whole integrated product. System testing is black-box testing, and it is performed in the form of a functional requirement specification.
  • User Acceptance Testing – User acceptance testing is a final level of testing, UAT is performed by the end-user or client. In UAT testing verify that software or product is ready to be released or not into the real world.

10) What is a test in manual testing?

The tested environment is used for application testing; we can test hardware as well as software programs also. The test consists of hardware, network configuration, software, and other related software.

11) Explain the procedure for manual testing.

In The manual testing process, follow the below steps:

  • Project Planning and Control
  • Project Design
  • Test case Execution
  • Evaluating exit criteria and Reporting
  • Test Closure activities

12) What is the test case?

One type of document that has a set of conditions that is performed on the particular application in order to verify the expected result of the feature is called a test case.

Test case documents include test steps, preconditions, postconditions, test data, and verification requirements.

13) What is API testing?

Perform software testing API directly from their functionality, reliability, security, and performance in API testing.

The application has three separate layers:

  • First is the Presentation Layer or user interface.
  • The second layer is Business Layer or application user interface for business logic processing.
  • The third and last layer is Database Layer for

14) Do you know the difference between verification and validation in testing?

Verification testing is done without executing the code. Verification is a static technique. Verification is coming before validation. Verification is the process where to verify the quality of the product. Verification is to reduce the chances of failure in the product.

Validation testing is including the execution of the code. Validation is dynamic testing. Validation comes after Verification. Validation is the process in which the actual requirements of the customer match with the software functionality. Validation is done after completing the development process.

15) Do you know the difference between a bug and a defect?

The tester finds fault in the software during testing it is called a bug and when a product goes to live that time developer detects the difference between the actual result and the expected result is called a defect.

January 27, 20236 minutesVirendra HarkhaniVirendra Harkhani
Some Laravel tips that we must need to know

Some Laravel tips that we must need to know

1) Null safe operator

From PHP 8 you can use Null Safe Operator

How we are doing null checking code in PHP < 8.0

 $country =  null;

 if ($session !== null) {
     $user = $session->user;

     if ($user !== null) {
         $address = $user->getAddress();

         if ($address !== null) {
             $country = $address->country;
         }
     }
 }

PHP 8 allows you to write this:

 $country = $session?->user?->getAddress()?->country;

2) Ternary condition

We have used this ternary condition for checking null value

 isset($user->image) ? $user->image : null

We can short above condition like this

 $user->image ?? null

3) Clone a model

You can clone a model using replicate(). It will create a copy of the model into a new, non-existing instance.

 $user = App\User::find(1);
 $newUser = $user->replicate();
 $newUser->save();

4) Default Relationship Models

Laravel provides a handy withDefault() method on the belongsTo relationship that will return a model object even when the relationship doesn't actually exist.

 class Post extends Model
 {
     public function user()
     {
         return $this->belongsTo(User::class)->withDefault();
     }
 }

Now, if we try to access the $post->user relationship, we'll still get a User object even when it does exist in the database. This is known as the "null object" pattern and helps eliminate some of those if ($post->user) conditional statements.

For more information read Laravel withDefault() doc.

5) Save models and relationships

You can save a model and its corresponding relationships using the push() method.

 class User extends Model
 {
     public function phone()
     {
         return $this->hasOne('App\Phone');
     }
 }
 $user = User::first();
 $user->name = "Peter";
 $user->phone->number = '1234567890';
 $user->push(); // This will update both user and phone record in DB

Hope it will be helpful.

Thanks

December 30, 20221 minuteMitesh MakwanaMitesh Makwana
How to Increase Sales from Upwork

Upwork is a platform that connects freelancers and clients for a wide range of services including sales. If you're looking to increase your sales on Upwork, here are some tips that can help:

  • Build a strong profile

  • Improve your proposal

  • Be Responsive and Professional

  • Offer added value

  • Use Upwork's tools and resources

Build a strong profile

Your Upwork profile is essentially your online resume. Make sure it accurately reflects your skills, experience, and qualifications. Use a clear, professional profile picture and highlight any relevant certifications or achievements.

Improve your proposal

When you apply for a job on Upwork, you will need to write a proposal explaining why you are the best candidate for the job. Read the job posting carefully and tailor your submission to the client's specific needs. Emphasize your relevant experience and skills and provide examples of your work.

Be Responsive and Professional

Once you've landed a job on Upwork, it's important to communicate effectively with your clients and meet deadlines. Respond to messages promptly and be respectful and professional in your interactions. This will help you build a positive reputation on the platform and increase your chances of getting repeat business or referrals.

Offer added value

In addition to getting the job done to the best of your ability, consider offering added value to your customers. This may be in the form of additional resources or advice or offering to complete additional tasks outside the scope of the original job. This can help you stand out from other freelancers and increase your chances of getting repeat business.

Use Upwork's tools and resources

Upwork offers a variety of tools and resources for freelancers, including the ability to track their time, create invoices, and manage their finances. Be sure to take advantage of these resources to streamline your work and make it easier for customers to do business with you.

Following these tips can increase your sales and build a successful freelance business on Upwork. Good luck!

December 22, 20222 minutesAnkit KalathiyaAnkit Kalathiya
How to Get Leads from LinkedIn

Add connections to your network

If you spend a minute or more each workday clicking the "Connect" button on the "People You May Know" list that LinkedIn posts in your feed, you'll expand your network, and you'll be known as a network expander. will, which is equally important.

Remember: Everyone you talk to about business or meet during a business day is a potential LinkedIn connection.

Build your lead list

Spend five minutes a day checking your contacts' connections to see who you don't know personally but would like to meet. Note down who you want to introduce. Start with the "recommendations" first, as those are likely the strongest connections of the LinkedIn user you're looking at.

Ask for recommendations outside of your LinkedIn account via email or phone. You will get a quick reply. (And you'll get a chance to quickly reconnect with your connections.)

Follow up with your current customers and prospects

Spend another two minutes each day searching for your current clients and top prospects. Find out if they have a company page. If they do, follow through and monitor.

Join groups

LinkedIn lets you connect with people who are in groups with you. Use this as a targeted way to add value to others, share insights, and build your network with prospects. Invest five minutes in this every day.

Use LinkedIn to celebrate the achievements of others

When you see a news story or post that provides good news about your client or prospect or any key contact, share the news as a status update. Identify a person with an "@" reply. It will ensure that they receive the mentioned notification. Spend a minute a day on this.

Write a recommendation

Securing LinkedIn recommendations is often difficult, if only because it takes time for the author to log in, write, and post.

Instead of waiting for someone to recommend you, take five minutes a day to write and post (reality-based) recommendations for your customers and key contacts. Once your contact approves the text, the recommendation will appear on his/her LinkedIn account.

September 30, 20222 minutesAnkit KalathiyaAnkit Kalathiya
How to write an email to a potential client

Reaching sales prospects over email is an opportunity to sell and develop a working relationship with a new client.

Write a subject line

The first step in writing a strong email to a prospect is to consider the subject line. The first thing a potential client will see in an email is the subject line, so it's important that it persuades the recipient to open the email. Here are some strategies you can use to write a compelling subject line:

Here's what you should do if you want to write good email subject lines:

  • Use personalization.
  • Ask an engaging question.
  • Use concise and action-oriented language.
  • Take advantage of scarcity and exclusivity.

Give information about yourself.

You will more likely gain traction if they already know, like, and trust you. But everyone has to start somewhere, right?

If they've never received a communication from you, tell them a little about yourself in a way that feels warm and authentic. You must convey who you are and why they should listen to you. At the same time, it's essential to make it about them. For example, your email sales introduction could look something like this:

"My name is [name], and I'm contacting you because..."

Close the email with a salutation

You can include a closing salutation that matches the level of formality you used to open the email. Here are a few examples of closing salutations for professional emails:

  • Thank You
  • Best wishes
  • Regards
  • Looking forward to hearing from you
  • Sincerely
August 16, 20221 minuteAnkit KalathiyaAnkit Kalathiya
Top Laravel packages that you need in 2022

What is Laravel?

Laravel is the most popular PHP framework right now to develop web applications, it offers a very easy environment and services for developers.

In this blog, we are going to know about the packages that we must have to use while developing any laravel application.

Best Laravel Packages

Here we are going to see some best and top laravel packages that will help you to optimize your application performance and it's also very useful while doing the development.

IDE Helper

Github: https://github.com/barryvdh/laravel-ide-helper

It's a very helpful package and saves lots of time for the developer.

It will generate the helper file which enables our IDE to provide accurate autocompletion while doing the development.

Laravel Debugbar

Github : https://github.com/barryvdh/laravel-debugbar

This is very helpful when we have to check the page performance, in sense of how many queries are firing on the specific page? , how many models are loading? etc.

We can show the total processing time of the page, and the query results time too. by using that results we can do some refactor to our code and make our application more optimized.

Spatie Medialibrary

Github : https://github.com/spatie/laravel-medialibrary

This package is very useful when we are doing file uploads. also, it allows us to upload files to the s3 (AWS) very easily by changing just the file system driver.

The main functionality it has is it allows us to associate files with the Eloquent models.

Spatie Role Permission

Github : https://github.com/spatie/laravel-permission

It's 2022 and still, lots of developers are using the custom roles/permissions management. they even didn't familiar that this package have capabilities to manage each role/permissions management with a specific Eloquent model too.

We can assign roles or permissions to the user model or even any model. later we can check it via the middleware that this package is providing.

Ziggy

Github : https://github.com/tighten/ziggy

Before using this package you must need to implement the named routes into your laravel application.

Normally people can just provide a hardcoded URL into the JS file while doing the AJAX calls. But with this package, you can use the route we are using in blade files.

This allows us to use the route() helper method in the JS files.

June 09, 20222 minutesVishal RibdiyaVishal Ribdiya
How to Make Sales and Marketing Meetings More Effective and Impactful

When done effectively, regular sales meetings are crucial to your team's success. In addition to sharing important updates and enabling group discussions, they can also help motivate your sales team.

What was supposed to be a way to make your team more successful turns into another series of updates. Before you know it, your sales representatives are starting to get scared by taking time out of their days to attend.

Establish expectations

When it comes to meetings that involve a lot of people, it is good to set some basic rules in advance. If your sales meetings are going overtime, you might want to consider addressing expectations. To save time and make sure you don't get sidetracked, you can:

  • Make sure participants know they should be prepared
  • All participants are required to participate
  • Control the time spent on discussion topics

Set a goal

The tradition of having a sales meeting once a week is not enough reason to hold a meeting. Yes, you want to block time in your calendar so that your sales team can get together, but it's okay to leave it.

At the end of the day, meetings without a specific purpose seem meaningless and just turn into another calendar entry. What’s worse, they can negatively affect your team’s performance for the rest of the day.

Review the results before the sales meeting

Depending on the size of your team, it may take time to review their results. That’s why your best bet is that they deliver the data before the meeting. The most comprehensive way to do this is to have a live document that they can update in advance.

Make your sales meetings exciting

Just because it’s a sales meeting, doesn’t mean it needs all the data and is no fun. Don’t forget that your team will pick up your energy. In other words, if you treat the meeting as a task, your team will not be more excited than you.

Now, that doesn’t mean you should bring out balloons and colorful wigs. It's just as easy to set the right tone from the start - and the best way to do that is to give credit where it's left.

Maintain consistency

Maintain consistency It is helpful to have a meeting at the same time every week so that your sales representatives get into the habit of blocking the same time on a weekly basis.

This will improve attendance, as your team will always know not to book more of that time unless absolutely necessary. If your team only has experienced salespeople, you can scale your sales meeting back and forth to give them more time to close deals.

June 07, 20222 minutesAnkit KalathiyaAnkit Kalathiya