motivation Posts

7 Principles of Software Testing

Software testing is the most common way of executing a program determined to track down the blunder. Our software needs to be error-free in order to perform well. The software will be free of all errors if the testing is successful.

7 Principles of Software Testing

There are seven principles of software testing as below:

  • Testing shows the presence of defects
  • Exhaustive testing is not possible
  • Early testing
  • Defect clustering
  • Pesticide paradox
  • Testing is context-dependent
  • Absence of errors fallacy
  • Principles of Software Testing

7 Principles of Software Testing

1) Testing shows the presence of defects

The application will be tested by the test engineer to ensure that there are no bugs or defects. During testing, we can only determine whether the software or application contains any errors. The majority of testing should be able to be traced back to the customer’s requirements, which means finding any flaws that might prevent the product from meeting the customer’s needs. This is the primary goal of testing, which uses a variety of methods and testing techniques to count the number of unknown bugs.

We can reduce the number of bugs in any application by testing it. However, this does not guarantee that the application is free of defects; software may appear bug-free after multiple types of testing. However, if the end-user encounters bugs that were not discovered during the testing process, they will be fixed at the time of deployment on the production server.

2) Exhaustive Testing is not possible

During the actual testing process, it sometimes appears to be very difficult to test all the modules and their features with effective and ineffective combinations of the input data.

As a result, rather than carrying out extensive testing, which necessitates endless calculations and results in failure for the majority of the effort, Because the product timelines prevent us from carrying out such testing scenarios, we are able to complete these variations based on the importance of the modules.

On-demand software testing pricing

3) Early Testing

In this context, “early testing” refers to all testing activities that should begin in the “requirement analysis stage” of the software development life cycle in order to find defects. This is because if we find bugs early enough, they can be fixed right away, which may save us a lot of money over bugs that are found later in the testing process.

We will need the documents for the requirement specification in order to carry out testing; Therefore, rather than addressing the issue at a later stage, such as the development phase, if the requirements are incorrectly defined, they can be addressed immediately.

4) Defect clustering

During the testing process, we can identify the number of bugs that are correlated to a small number of modules using defect clustering. This is due to a number of factors, including the modules’ potential complexity; The coding might be hard, and so on.

The Pareto Principle, states that we are able to identify that approximately, will apply to these kinds of software or applications. Twenty percent of the modules contain eighty percent of the complications. We can find the uncertain modules with this, but if the same tests are running on a regular basis, this method can be difficult, and the same test won’t be able to find new defects.

5) Pesticide paradox

This principle stated that the software or application will not be able to detect new bugs if the same set of test cases is run repeatedly over a predetermined period of time. It is critical to frequently review all test cases in order to overcome these pesticide paradoxes. Additionally, new and distinct tests must be written for the implementation of multiple software or application components to aid in the discovery of additional bugs.

6) Testing is context-dependent

According to the context-dependent principle of testing, there are a variety of market sectors, including commercial websites, e-commerce websites, and so forth. Because each application has its own requirements, features, and functionality, there is a certain method for testing commercial and e-commerce websites. To check this sort of use, we will take the assistance of different sorts of testing, different procedure, approaches, and various strategies. As a result, the application’s context determines the testing.

Functional vs non-functional testing

7) Absence of errors fallacy

We can say that the application is 99 percent bug-free once it has been tested thoroughly and no bugs have been found before it is released. However, there is a possibility that if the application is tested alongside the incorrect requirements, flaws will be discovered, and they will need to be fixed within a certain time frame. This is because the testing is done on the incorrect specification, which does not correspond to the client’s requirements. According to the absence of error fallacy, if the application is impractical and unable to fulfil the requirements and needs of the client, then identifying and fixing bugs would not be helpful.

March 03, 20234 minutesVirendra HarkhaniVirendra Harkhani
Manual Testing Interview Questions – Every QA Should Read [Part - 2]

Manual Testing Interview Questions – Every QA Should Read

In today’s competitive world, testing is critical to the success of any software product. Manual tests are important in software development because they can be used in situations where automated testing isn’t possible. This Blog about Manual Testing Interview Questions will help you learn software testing.

With this thorough list of over 120 manual testing interview questions and answers, you’ll be ready for your software testing interviews. These manual testing interview questions are appropriate for both fresher and experienced candidates.

Let’s start by going through some of the most common Manual Testing Interview Questions.

16) What are the advantages of manual testing?

  • Manual testing is cheaper as compared to automation testing.
  • Point of view of an end-user, product analysis is possible only in manual testing.
  • Using manual testing you can also be done GUI testing accurately because using automation difficult to test visual accessibility and preferences.
  • Manual testing is used where the test script is not repeated and reused more times and mainly for short-term projects.
  • Manual testing is best at an early stage of development.

17) What are the drawbacks of manual testing?

  • Some types of testing are not possible to do manually like load testing, performance testing, etc.
  • Sometimes testing is more time-consuming than manual testing like regression testing.
  • Manual testing has a limited scope as compared to automation testing.
  • For long-term projects, manual testing is very expensive.

18) What’s the role of documentation in Manual Testing?

Documentation plays an important role in achieving good software testing. In the documentation, we are including details like project requirements and specifications, designs, basic business rules, inspection reports, configurations, test planning, test cases, bug reporting, user manual, etc.

Using test cases documentation will easy to estimate the testing efforts that will need to spend with test tracking and tracing requirements. Some of the applied documentation associated with software testing are listed below:

  • Test Plan
  • Test Scenario
  • Test Case
  • Traceability Matrix

19)What makes a good test engineer?

A software test engineer is any professional who ensures that the product meets all the expectations and requirements. A software test engineer creates a process for testing a particular product.

  • A good tester should easily understand the priority of the task and should have the ability to take the requirements of the customer.
  • A good test engineer should have the ability to assert his ideas to maintain a cooperative relationship with developers Tester has the ability to communicate which he can report a bug for negative things positively with developers as well as with customers and management people also.
  • Ability to take a risk whenever they need to make important decisions

20) What is the test harness?

A test harness is the cluster of software and test information. Into the test harness test a program unit by running it in a different environment like pressure, load, data-driven, and observing its behavior, reaction, and outcomes. Test Harness is mainly divided into two parts:

  • A Test Execution Engine
  • Test script repository

21) What is test closure?

Test closure is a document that has a summary of all test cases which is made during the software development life cycle. Test closure has also detail about the analysis and remove bugs and errors found. Test closure also contains a report of executed test cases, total no. of open bugs, total no. of rejected bugs.

22) Do you know, the difference between Positive and Negative Testing?

Positive Testing Negative Testing
Positive testing ensures that the application working as an expected result, if not then the test is fails Negative testing ensures that the application can handle the input or unwanted user behaviour.
In this testing, the tester tests the application with a valid set of data. In this testing, tester test the application with an invalid set of data and check their creativity and validation against invalid data.

23) Define what is a critical bug.

A critical bug is a bug that is the impacts a major functionality of the given application. This means affecting a large area of the functionality or breaking any functionality and there is no other method to overcome this problem. The application cannot be delivered to the end-user unless the critical bug is fixed.

24) What is the pesticide paradox? How to overcome it?

Based on the pesticide paradox, if the same tests are carried out again and again then the outcome of these test cases are the same, so for the same test cases tester is not able to find new bugs. Developers will be extra careful in those parts where the tester found more bugs and might not look into the other areas.

Below describe Methods to prevent pesticide paradox are following:

  • Write a whole new different set of test cases continually to exercise different parts of the software.
  • On daily basis review the existing test cases and add new test cases to them.

Using these above methods, it is possible that we can find more bugs in the segment where bug numbers are dropped.

25) What is Defect Cascading in Software Testing?

Defect Cascading is the action of triggering other defects in the application. During testing, while defects go unnoticed then other defects are invoked. As an outcome, a greater number of defects crop up in the later stage of development. If defect cascading continues then impact on other components of the application and determining the affected component becomes more difficult. You can make different test cases for resolving this issue but it is very difficult and time-consuming.

26) What is the term ‘quality’ mean when testing?

Quality software is defect-free, delivered on time and within budget, meets conditions and expectations, and is maintainable. Still ‘Quality’ is a personal term. Quality will depend on who the ‘customer’ is and their overall influence in the scheme of things. The accounting department might define quality in terms of earnings while an end-user might describe quality as user-supportive and defect-free.

27) What is black box testing, and what are the various techniques?

Black Box testing also known as specification-based testing, analyses the functionality of the software without knowing about the internal structure of the application. The goal of this testing is to check the whole workflow of the system is works correctly and meets user demands. Various black box testing techniques are listed below:

  • Equivalence Partitioning
  • Boundary Value Analysis
  • Decision Table Based Technique
  • Cause-effect Graphing
  • Use Case Testing

28) What is white box testing, and what are the various techniques?

White-box testing is also known as structure-based testing, for white box testing requires knowledge of the internal structure of the application. The purpose of this testing is to improve design and usability, check the flow of input/outputs, enhance security. Below are the various kind of white box testing techniques:

  • Statement Coverage
  • Decision Coverage
  • Condition Coverage
  • Multiple Condition Coverage

29) What are the Experience-based testing techniques?

Experienced-based testing is all about finding, research, and learning. The tester continuously studies and analyses the product and accordingly applies his skills, trick, and experience to develop test strategies and test cases to perform necessary testing. Various experience-based testing techniques are:

  • Exploratory testing
  • Error Guessing

30) What is a top-down and bottom-up approach to testing?

Top-Down – Testing occurs from top to bottom. This is, high-level modules are tested first and after that low-level modules. Lastly, the low-level modules are integrated into a high-level state to guarantee the framework is working as it is expected to.

Bottom-Up – Testing occurs from base levels to high-up levels. The lowest level modules are tested first and thereafter high-level state modules. Lastly, the high-level state modules are corresponded to a low level to guarantee the framework is filling in as it has been proposed to.

February 03, 20236 minutesVirendra HarkhaniVirendra Harkhani
Manual Testing Interview Questions – Every QA Should Read

Manual Testing Interview Questions – Every QA Should Read

In today’s competitive world, testing is critical to the success of any software product. Manual tests are important in software development because they can be used in situations where automated testing isn’t possible. This Blog about Manual Testing Interview Questions will help you learn software testing.

With this thorough list of over 120 manual testing interview questions and answers, you’ll be ready for your software testing interviews. These manual testing interview questions are appropriate for both fresher and experienced candidates.

Let’s start by going through some of the most common Manual Testing Interview Questions.

120+ Manual Testing Interview Questions:

Below are the 120+ manual testing interview questions and answers:

1) What is Software Testing?

Software testing is a process to test whether the actual product is matched with an expected requirement or not and if getting an issue then it could be resolved before the released product to the market and at last ensure that product is bug-free.

2) What is manual testing?

Manual testing is a type of testing that involves the validation of the requirements of the application by executing a predefined set of test cases manually without the use of any automation tool.

3) Why is Software Testing Required?

Software testing is a process that verifies the product is secure and good enough to be released to the market. The reason for software testing is to find defects, errors, and unmatched or missing requirements compared to the actual requirement.

  • It points out the bug and error which is made during the development.
  • If identify issues at the starting stage of development, then we can reduce the coding cycles.
  • Ensure that product is defect-free, and the product meets the market standard.
  • Make sure that the application doesn’t result in any failures.

4) What are the two main categories of software testing?

Software testing is a vast domain, but it can be categorized into two types, such as:

  • Manual Testing– Manual testing is the oldest type of software testing where the tester executes all test cases without using any tools, mean-tested whole application manually by QA testers.
  • Automation Testing– Automation Testing is the process of executing repeating predefined test cases using an automation testing tool. The main focus of automation testing is replacing manual activity with automated test cases

5) Do you know the difference between quality control and quality assurance?

Quality Control Quality Assurance
Quality Control is a product-based approach of running a program to define if the application has any defect, as well as make sure software fulfils all the requirements. Quality assurance is a process-oriented approach that focuses on making sure that the methods, techniques used to make quality deliverables are applied correctly.
QA means planning for doing any testing process. QC means doing action for executing the planned process.
QA does not involve executing the test cases. QC is always involved in executing the test cases.
QA is the technique of handling the quality of the application. QC is a method to verify the quality of software

6) What is quality control? Is it similar to Quality Assurance?

Quality control is a product-based strategy of running a program to define if it has any defect, as well as create sure software fulfils all requirements with end-user.

So, Quality control is not similar to Quality assurance, Quality assurance is a process-oriented approach. It is focused only on process, methods, and techniques which is used to create quality deliverables that are applied correctly.

7) What different types of manual testing are there?

Manual testing is divided into different types, which are listed below:

  • Acceptance Testing
  • System Testing
  • Black Box Testing
  • White Box Testing
  • Unit Testing
  • Integration Testing

8) Explain the difference between alpha testing and beta testing.

Alpha and beta both testing types are types of user acceptance testing. Find the brief description of alpha vs beta testing here.

  • Alpha Testing – Alpha testing is a process that is performed before realizing the product to identify a bug.
  • Beta Testing – Beta testing is a process that is performed by the end-user after realizing the product.

9) What are the different levels of manual testing?

We have different 4 levels of manual testing, which is described below:

  • Unit testing – Unit testing is testing where we test separate units or the smallest pieces of source code. The goal of unit testing is to separate all parts and show that all parts are worked without any defect.
  • Integration Testing – It is a type of testing where individual units are combined and tested there is no bug after integrating the separate units.
  • System Testing – System testing is defined as the testing of the whole integrated product. System testing is black-box testing, and it is performed in the form of a functional requirement specification.
  • User Acceptance Testing – User acceptance testing is a final level of testing, UAT is performed by the end-user or client. In UAT testing verify that software or product is ready to be released or not into the real world.

10) What is a test in manual testing?

The tested environment is used for application testing; we can test hardware as well as software programs also. The test consists of hardware, network configuration, software, and other related software.

11) Explain the procedure for manual testing.

In The manual testing process, follow the below steps:

  • Project Planning and Control
  • Project Design
  • Test case Execution
  • Evaluating exit criteria and Reporting
  • Test Closure activities

12) What is the test case?

One type of document that has a set of conditions that is performed on the particular application in order to verify the expected result of the feature is called a test case.

Test case documents include test steps, preconditions, postconditions, test data, and verification requirements.

13) What is API testing?

Perform software testing API directly from their functionality, reliability, security, and performance in API testing.

The application has three separate layers:

  • First is the Presentation Layer or user interface.
  • The second layer is Business Layer or application user interface for business logic processing.
  • The third and last layer is Database Layer for

14) Do you know the difference between verification and validation in testing?

Verification testing is done without executing the code. Verification is a static technique. Verification is coming before validation. Verification is the process where to verify the quality of the product. Verification is to reduce the chances of failure in the product.

Validation testing is including the execution of the code. Validation is dynamic testing. Validation comes after Verification. Validation is the process in which the actual requirements of the customer match with the software functionality. Validation is done after completing the development process.

15) Do you know the difference between a bug and a defect?

The tester finds fault in the software during testing it is called a bug and when a product goes to live that time developer detects the difference between the actual result and the expected result is called a defect.

January 17, 20236 minutesVirendra HarkhaniVirendra Harkhani
Human Resources Functions: 8 Areas to Focus on

When it comes to the human resources department, there are many different functions that need to be carried out in order to ensure the success of the organization. There are eight key areas that all HR departments should focus on in order to create a successful workforce.

1. Employee Screening

It is important to screen employees carefully before hiring them. This includes checking their references and performing background checks.

2. Recruiting

The process of finding and attracting qualified candidates to fill job openings within an organization is called recruiting. It is important to have a well-defined recruiting process in place in order to attract the best candidates possible.

3. Hiring

The process of formally inviting a candidate to become an employee is called hiring. It is important to have a clear and concise job description in order for candidates to understand what the job entails.

4. Orientation

New employees should be given a comprehensive orientation upon starting their new job. This includes introducing them to the company culture, explaining their duties and responsibilities, and providing training on how to do their job correctly.

5. Training

It is important for employees to be properly trained on the company's policies and procedures, as well as their specific job duties. This will help them to be more productive and effective on the job.

6. Performance Management

Performance management involves setting expectations for employee performance, communicating these expectations, and providing feedback on employee performance.

Performance management is a process that helps ensure that employees are meeting the expectations of their organization. The process begins by setting expectations for employee performance. These expectations can be based on job descriptions, organizational goals, or other standards. Once expectations are set, the next step is to communicate these expectations to employees. This can be done through job descriptions, performance goals, or other means.

The final step is providing feedback on employee performance. This feedback can be positive or negative and can be given formally or informally. The goal of performance management is to help employees meet the expectations of their organization.

7. Compensation and Benefits

The HR department is responsible for ensuring that employees are compensated fairly and receive appropriate benefits. This can help to attract and retain top talent.

8. Employee retention

The HR department should work to create a positive work environment that encourages employees to stay with the company long-term. This can include implementing retention strategies such as employee recognition programs and good benefits packages.

December 26, 20222 minutesDarshika KyadaDarshika Kyada
Motivational Theories

To enhance productivity at the workplace, Motivation is essential. but the question is how to motivate employees. Well, there are various motivational theories.

  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
  • McGregor’s X and Y Theories
  • McClelland’s Need Achievement Theory
  • The Equity Theory
  • Value–Percept Theory
  • Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
  • Porter-Lawler Model

let's discuss the first theory

Maslow's Hierarchy of needs

This theory is based on the human requirement, Abraham Maslow explained how individuals behave when they met the requirement. Maslow's theory indicates that Job satisfaction revolved around employees' needs and that factors bring them to a reasonable level of satisfaction.

Maslow divided his theory into five different stages as per individuals' priorities, these five stages are based on the various needs of human beings.

  • Stage-1 Physiological needs
  • Stage-2 Safety and security needs
  • Stage-3 Social needs
  • Stage-4 Esteem Needs
  • Stage-5 Self- actualization needs

Stage-1 Physiological needs

Physiological needs are basic needs like drinking when thirsty, and eating when hungry, Maslow considered psychological needs as the most essential needs. people are more likely to fulfill these needs first, for instance- If anyone is really hungry then it's hard to focus on any other thing besides food.

Stage-2 Safety and security

Once the physiological needs are fulfilled then it's human tendency to think about safety and security which includes saving, investment, and extra income.

Stage-3 Social need

This step involved love feelings and acceptance. These needs include both relationship Romantic relationships as well as tied with friends and family members. It also includes forming a social group. Feeling the love from others and feeling love towards others both are the key points of this stage.

Stage-4 Esteem Needs

This need involved two components- the first component involved Feeling confident and feeling good about oneself. The second component involved feeling valued by others.

Stage-5 Self- actualization needs

Self-actualization needs to involve a feeling of fulfillment all needs are acquired by the individual. A person is living up to the potential. a significant feature of this stage is person looks different from others.

According to Maslow, this feeling of self-actualization is really rare for instance Albert Einstein and Mother Teresa. to read more about Maslow's theory please read my upcoming blog

November 15, 20222 minutesDarshika KyadaDarshika Kyada
Importance of Employee Motivation

Importance

Motivation allows management to attain its goals. Without motivation, It’s too difficult to attain organizational goals without motivation workplace could be placed in a very risky position.

The motivated employee can lead the higher productivity and allow the organization to achieve a higher level of output. Imagine having employees without motivation for work, they will probably use their time at their desk surfing on the internet for personal pleasure, Gossiping with others, even applying for other jobs as well. This Is a waste of your time and your resources.

Benefits of Motivated Employees

Employee motivation is highly important for each organization since it brings many benefits which include.

  1. Improve Employee Efficiency

  2. Improve Employee Commitment

  3. Ongoing employee Development

  4. Improve Employee Satisfaction

  5. Higher Productivity level

  6. Lower absenteeism

  7. Better problem-solving

  8. Creativity and Innovation

  9. Pro-Active workforce

  10. Goal Oriented workforce

  11. a Better understanding of the End Goal

  12. Lower turnover

  13. Better as a Team Player

  14. Influence to another worker

  15. Great reputation leads to strong recruitment

  16. Client-centric

To know more about Employee motivation, kindly read the upcoming monthly blog.

January 04, 20223 minutesMariyam BematMariyam Bemat
Motivation

We often hear the term motivation. We all are human and that’s why we all have emotions and motivation is the driving force behind our behavior. Let’s discuss this in detail.

What is Motivation?

Motivation is the desire to act in service of the Goals. It’s the most crucial objective in setting and attaining business objectives.

We can define the motivation by the line in the book ‘The War Of Art’ written by The author Steven Pressfield “At some point, the pain of not doing it becomes greater than the pain of doing it.”

Motivation is a powerful weapon for any organization yet a tricky one. Sometimes it’s really easy to get motivated and motivate others, other times it's nearly impossible to figure out how to motivate oneself and others as well.

Every choice has a price but when employees are motivated it is easier to bear the inconvenience of action than the remaining same. In other words, employees are at the level ‘ It’s Easier To Change Than The Remaining Same’

Scientists define motivation as a general willingness to do something. It is the set of psychological forces that compel you to take action.

Common Misconception about motivation

How does motivation come?

We all have this misconception that motivation arrives as a result of watching motivational videos or reading inspirational books but one of the most surprising things is Motivation often comes AFTER starting new behavior not BEFORE. It’s the result of an action, not the cause of it.

I hope you get a basic understanding of Motivation. To know more about the motivation stay in tune with upcoming HR Blogs.

November 18, 20212 minutesMariyam BematMariyam Bemat