Testing Posts

Software Testing Life Cycle

Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC) identifies the test activities to perform and when to perform those test activities. While testing differs between organizations, there is a test lifecycle.

There are mainly eight phases of STLC

  1. Requirement Analysis
  2. Test Planning And Control
  3. Test Analysis
  4. Test Case Development
  5. Test Environment Setup
  6. Test Execution
  7. Exit Criteria Evaluation And Reporting
  8. Test Closure

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Requirement Analysis:-

The entry criteria for this phase is the BRS document (Business Requirements Specification). During this phase, the test team studies and analyzes the requirements from a test perspective.

This phase helps to identify whether the requirements are likely or not. If any requirement is not verifiable, the test team can communicate with various stakeholders (customer, business analyst, technical leaders, system architects, etc.) during this phase so that the mitigation strategy can be planned.

Entry criteria: BRS (Business Requirement Specification) Results

Deliverables: list of all verifiable requirements, automation feasibility report (if applicable)

Test Planning And Control:-

Test planning is the first step in the testing process. At this stage typically Test Manager Test Lead involves determining the effort and cost estimates for the entire project. The preparation of the Test Plan will be made on the basis of the requirements analysis. Activities such as resource planning, determination of roles and responsibilities, selection of tools (if automation), training requirements, etc., are carried out at this stage.

The deliverables of this phase are Test Plan & Effort estimation documents.

Entry Criteria: Requirements Documents

Deliverables: Test Strategy, Test Plan, and Test Effort estimation document.

Test Analysis:-

Test Analysis Is the process of analyzing the test basis (all documents from which the requirements of a component or system can be inferred) and defining test objectives. It covers WHAT is to be tested in the form of test conditions and can start as soon as the basis for testing is established for each test level.

Following Is The Document Which Is Use In Test Analysis:-

  • CRS (Customer Requirement Specification)
  • SRS (Software Requirement Specification)
  • BRS (Business Requirement Specification)
  • Functional Design Documents

Test Case Development:-

This phase begins after the test planning and analysis phase is completed. From test analysis, we can understand how to test and what the test condition is. So easily understand and develop the test case. In This phase, the evaluator creates the manual / automation test scripts. The test data is prepared in this phase and the data is used to find the defect. The Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM) is also ready Because the evaluator understands tracking the test case for the particular requirement.

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Activities in the Test Case Development Phase

Following are the three activities that are carried out in the Test Case Development phase

Test Scenarios Identification

  1. Scenarios ease the testing and evaluation of a complex system. The following strategies help in creating good scenarios −
  2. Enumerate potential users, their actions, and their goals.
  3. Evaluate Users who have a hacker mindset and listed possible scenarios for abuse of the system.
  4. List System events and how the system handles these requests.
  5. List Benefits and create comprehensive tasks to verify.
  6. Read about similar systems and their behavior.
  7. Studying Complaints about competitors' products and their predecessors.

Test Cases Writing

A test case is a document, which includes test data, preconditions, expected results, and postconditions, developed for a particular test case in order to verify compliance with a specific requirement.

Test Case serves as a starting point for running the test. After a set of input, values ​​are applied; the application is final and leaves the system at an endpoint also known as a post-execution condition.

Test Data Preparation

Test Data is used to run the tests for test ware. Test Data must be precise and complete in order to detect the shortcomings. To achieve these three goals, follow a step-by-step approach as given below -

  1. Identify resources or test requirements
  2. Identify conditions/functionality to be tested
  3. Set priority test conditions
  4. Select conditions to test
  5. Determine the expected result of test case processing
  6. Create Test cases
  7. Document test
  8. conditions Conduct test
  9. Verify and correct test cases based on modifications

Activity Block Diagram

The following diagram shows the different activities that form part of Test Case Development.

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Test Environment Setup:-

A test environment is a software and hardware configuration that allows test teams to run test cases. In other words, it supports running tests with configured hardware, software, and network. The testbed or environment is configured as needed Application Under Test. On some occasions, the test may be the combination of the test environment and the test data that it operates. Setting a good test environment guarantees successful software testing. Any Loopholes in this process can result in additional costs and time for the customer.

Process of Software Test environment setup

Tests are limited to what can be tested and what not should be tested.

Following people are involved in test environment setup

  • System Admins,
  • Developers
  • Testers
  • Sometimes users or techies with an affinity for testing.

The test environment requires setting up of a various number of distinct areas like,

Setup of Test Server

Test Every may not be performed on a local machine. It may need to create a test server that can support applications.

For example, Fedora configuration for PHP, Java-based applications with or without mail server, cron configuration, Java-based applications, and so on.

Network

Network set up as per the test requirement. It includes,

  • Internet setup
  • LAN Wi-Fi setup
  • Private network setup

It ensures that the congestion that occurs during testing doesn't affect other members. (Developers, designers, content writers, etc.)

Test PC setup

For web testing, you may need to set up different browsers for different testers. For desktop applications, you need various types of OS for different testers' PCs.

For example, Windows phone app testing may require.

  • Visual Studio installation
  • Windows phone emulator
  • Alternatively, assigning a Windows phone to the tester.

Bug Reporting

Bug reporting tools should be provided to testers.

Creating Test Data for the Test Environment

Many companies use a separate test environment to test the software product. The common approach used is to copy production data to test. This helps the tester to detect the same issues as a live production server, without corrupting the production data.

The approach for copying production data to test data includes,

  • Set up production jobs to copy the data to a common test environment
  • All PII (Personally Identifiable Information) is modified along with other sensitive data. The PII is replaced with logically correct, but non-personal data.
  • Remove data that is irrelevant to your test.

Testers or developers can copy this to their individual test environments. They can modify it as per their requirement.

Privacy is the main issue in copy production data. To overcome privacy issues you should look into obfuscated and anonymized test data.

For Anonymization of data two approaches can be used,

  • Blacklist: In this approach, all the data fields are left unchanged. Except those fields specified by the users.
  • Whitelist: By default, this approach, anonymizes all data fields. Except for a list of fields that are allowed to be copied. A whitelisted field implies that it is okay to copy the data as it is and anonymization is not required.

Also, if you are using production data, you need to be smart about how to source data. Querying the database using SQL script is an effective approach.

Every test may not be executed on a local machine. It may need establishing a test server, which can support applications.

For example, Fedora set up for PHP, Java-based applications with or without mail servers, cron set up, Java-based applications, etc.

Network

Network set up as per the test requirement. It includes,

  • Internet setup
  • LAN Wi-Fi setup
  • Private network setup

It ensures that the congestion that occurs during testing doesn't affect other members. (Developers, designers, content writers, etc.)

Test Execution:-

After The test plan, the development of the test case, and the configuration of the test environment are complete, and then the execution phase of the test is executed.

This manual test/automation script phase is executed. If any defect is detected during the execution of the test case, it will be reported to the developer through the bug tracking system.

If any test case result is a failure then this particular test case is marked as a failure.

If any test case result is matched to the expected result then a particular test case is marked as Pass.

If all module dependencies are tested and any fault is detected, the particular module test case is marked as blocked, first corrects the main module fault, and then runs the associated module test case. For example, B depends on module A.

If any fault is found in module A, the test case of module B is not executed. First correct the fault of module A then rerun the module A test case, If module A the result of the test case is Pass then run the module B execution of the test case.

Blocked Test noticed cases are executed after the fault is corrected by the developer.

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Exit Criteria Evaluation And Reporting:-

In this phase, if the exit criteria match the test result. In Termination Criteria, There is one condition that is predefined. At this stage, The test summary report is generated. A Document containing a summary of testing activities and final test results is called Test Summary Report.

Test Closure:-

In the final stage where we prepare the Test Closure Report, Test Metrics.

The testing team will be called out for a meeting to evaluate cycle completion criteria based on Test coverage, Quality, Time, Cost, Software, Business objectives.

The test team analyses the test artifacts (such as Test cases, defect reports, etc.,) to identify strategies that have to be implemented in the future, which will help to remove process bottlenecks in the upcoming projects.

Test metrics and Test closure reports will be prepared based on the above criteria.

Entry Criteria: Test Case Execution report (make sure there are no high severity defects opened), Defect report

Deliverables: Test Closure report, Test metrics

August 31, 20208 minutesBhumi KhimaniBhumi Khimani
Software Testing Technology

Software testing is a process of checking and validating the functionality of an application to determine if it meets specified requirements. It is about finding application faults and verifying where the application is operating according to the end-user needs.

Important Software Testing Techniques:-

  • Boundary Value Analysis (BVA)
  • Equivalence Class Partitioning
  • Decision Table based testing.
  • State Transition
  • Error Guessing
  • Boundary Value Analysis (BVA)
  1. The marginal cost assessment is based entirely on trying the boundaries between partitions. It includes maximum, minimum, internal, or external barriers, typical values, and error values. It is generally seen that numerous errors occur at the obstacles of the defined input values as opposed to the center.

  2. It is also known as BVA and offers a selection of test entities that train limit values. This black container test method improves equivalence partitioning. This software program trying one approach is based on the principle that if a machine works well for these exact values, it will paint error-free for all values that are between the two limits.

Let's see one example:

Input condition is valid between 1 and 10 Boundary values 0,1,2 and 9,10,11

Equivalence Class Partitioning

The equal class phase lets you divide a hard and fast check state into separate sections which are taken into consideration identical. The equal class division software program test technique breaks the input area of a program into a class of information, so a test case has to be designed.

Let’s see one example:

Input conditions are valid between

1 to 10 and 20 to 30

Hence, there are five equivalence classes

--- to 0 (invalid)

1 to 10 (valid)

11 to 19 (invalid)

20 to 30 (valid)

31 to --- (invalid)

You select values from each class, i.e.,

-2, 3, 15, 25, 45

Decision Table Based Testing

The decision table is known as the cause and effect table. This testing technique is suitable for input features that have a logical relationship between inputs. In this technique, combinations of inputs are processed. In order to identify the test case with the decision table, it is necessary to consider the terms, actions, and procedures. Conditions are taken as input and actions as output.

Testing Using The Decision Table In The Login Form

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CONDITIONS - CASE 1, CASE 2, CASE 3, CASE 4

| EMAIL | F | T | F | T | PASSWORD | F | F | T | T | OUTPUT | ERROR | ERROR | ERROR | HOME SCREEN

CASE 1: Email And Password Wrong: Error Message Displayed.

CASE 2: Email True And Password Wrong, Error Message Displayed.

CASE 3: Email Wrong And Password True, Error Message Displayed.

CASE 4: Email And Password True, Redirect to Home screen

State Transition Testing Technique

In-State Transition technique changes in input conditions change the state of the Application Under Test (AUT). This testing technique allows the tester to test the behavior of an AUT. The tester can perform this action by entering various input conditions in a sequence. In-State transition technique, the testing team provides positive as well as negative input test values for evaluating the system behavior.

Presently We Make A Diagram For Forgot Password/OTP Proces

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  1. First Enter the Right Number In This Text Box and Click RESET PASSWORD Button. One OTP Comes On Mobile Number.
  2. To reset the secret word you should experience the "OTP'' framework. The first run-through the client enters is "OTP '', they will be permitted to go to the secret phrase change page.
  3. In the event that the client enters mistaken "OTP '' unexpectedly and second, the framework will request the third time "OTP'' is entered.
  4. In the event that "OTP'' is valid, it will be permitted to go to the secret phrase change page, in any case, if the OTP is off base the third time, an Error Message Displayed Like "Your OTP has expired!!".

State Transition Table

ATTEMPT CORRECT PIN INCORRECT PIN

| [B1] Start | B5 | B2

| [B2] First attempt | B5 | B3

| [B3] Second attempt | B5 | B4

| [B4] third attempt | B5 | B4

| [B5] Access granted | - | -

| [B6] Account blocked | - | -

Error Guessing Technique

Error guessing is a software testing technique based on guessing the error that can appear in the code. The technique relies heavily on experience, with the test analysts using their experience to guess the problematic part of the test application. Therefore, test analysts need to be competent and experienced in order to better guess errors. The technique counts a list of possible errors or error-prone situations. Then the tester writes a test case to uncover these errors. To design test cases based on this software testing technique, the analyst can use the experience to identify the conditions.

This technique can be used at any level of testing and for testing the common mistakes like:

  • Divide by zero
  • Inserting blanks in text fields
  • Pressing the enter button without entering values
  • Uploading files that exceed the maximum limits
  • Exception null pointer.
  • Invalid parameters

Let’s see one example:

Suppose there is a requirement that the phone number be numeric and not less than 10 characters. And the software application has a phone number.

The following are the error estimation techniques:

  1. What will be the result if the cellphone number is left blank?
  2. What is the result if a character other than a digit is entered?
  3. What is the result if fewer than 10 digits are entered?
August 22, 20204 minutesBhumi KhimaniBhumi Khimani
Manual Testing like a Pro
However advanced automation testing may get, we can't live without manual testing. Because not everything can be and should be, tested with code. There is a certain level of human interference required.

Here's how to be great at manual testing:

Understand the product which you are going to test

  • Before you begin testing any app/website, you should know the concepts of the product, what problems the product solves and how are users going to use it.
  • Here the steps to rectify the concept of product 
    • Identifying customer needs.
    • Defining the problem and objectives.
    • Drafting and analysis.
    • Ask for detailed design and drawings.
    • Testing.
    • Final successful delivery.

Have a clear understanding of requirements

  • ‘’First how we know to understand the requirements here the steps mentioned below’’
  • There are mainly two types of requirements: 1. Functional 2. Non-functional
  • What are Functional Requirements?
  • Functional requirements define the basic system behavior. Essentially, they are what the system does or must not do, and can be thought of in terms of how the system responds to inputs. Functional requirements usually define if/then behaviors and include calculations, data input, and business processes.
  • What are the Non-Functional Requirements?
  • While functional requirements define what the system does or must not do,
  • non-functional requirements specify how the system should do it. Non-functional requirements do not affect the basic functionality of the system Even if the non-functional requirements are not met.
  • the system will still perform its basic purpose.

Changelog and Impacting Area

Ask the developer of changelog detailing & made the product changes which are listing the impact areas

  • This will help to customize or change the task from the bug
  • This will give ease to know the bug
  • It will give a glance at the task and the flow in which it is working
  • This will help you prioritize where to look for potential bugs

Test Scenario and Cases

Write down test scenario/cases in Excel for easy reference

  • Understand the Learners: To write concrete and effective scenarios you must understand your learners and know their needs and expectations.
  • Create Real Life and Relevant Situations: Make your scenarios as real as possible.
  • Motivate the Learner: A well-written scenario should motivate the learner to action.
  • ‘’How to write the test cases’’ 
    • Title Must be strong
    • Include a Strong Description with Assumptions & Preconditions
    • Keep the Test Steps Clear and Concise
    • The result must be Expected
    • Also, Make is Reusable

Critical Flows

Check the product critical flows & code impacted flows twice

  • This will ensure, that in case something goes wrong in production, it would be any business-critical flows
  • Reason to do: for uncertain changes of code, some regression will occur in code, if we didn't check & deployed in the server.to rid the problem in the product needs to check the critical flow twice.

Don't test along with the developer

  • If you test with the developer, you may miss out on edge cases due to the developer's bias or perspective. So make sure you test the app/website once while the developer is not with you.

If in doubt, ask the Developer or Product Lead

  • It always helps to communicate any doubt that you have
  • As the perspective varies and as well as a method so in case of any doubt ask the developer and correct it.
  • Also communicate with the product lead in case of doubt so the better output can be generated of the task with minimal bugs and well-defined task
July 16, 20203 minutesBhumi KhimaniBhumi Khimani