In today’s competitive world, testing is critical to the success of any software product. Manual tests are important in software development because they can be used in situations where automated testing isn’t possible. This Blog about Manual Testing Interview Questions will help you learn software testing.
With this thorough list of over 120 manual testing interview questions and answers, you’ll be ready for your software testing interviews. These manual testing interview questions are appropriate for both fresher and experienced candidates.
Let’s start by going through some of the most common Manual Testing Interview Questions.
120+ Manual Testing Interview Questions:
Below are the 120+ manual testing interview questions and answers:
1) What is Software Testing?
Software testing is a process to test whether the actual product is matched with an expected requirement or not and if getting an issue then it could be resolved before the released product to the market and at last ensure that product is bug-free.
2) What is manual testing?
Manual testing is a type of testing that involves the validation of the requirements of the application by executing a predefined set of test cases manually without the use of any automation tool.
3) Why is Software Testing Required?
Software testing is a process that verifies the product is secure and good enough to be released to the market. The reason for software testing is to find defects, errors, and unmatched or missing requirements compared to the actual requirement.
- It points out the bug and error which is made during the development.
- If identify issues at the starting stage of development, then we can reduce the coding cycles.
- Ensure that product is defect-free, and the product meets the market standard.
- Make sure that the application doesn’t result in any failures.
4) What are the two main categories of software testing?
Software testing is a vast domain, but it can be categorized into two types, such as:
- Manual Testing– Manual testing is the oldest type of software testing where the tester executes all test cases without using any tools, mean-tested whole application manually by QA testers.
- Automation Testing– Automation Testing is the process of executing repeating predefined test cases using an automation testing tool. The main focus of automation testing is replacing manual activity with automated test cases
5) Do you know the difference between quality control and quality assurance?
|Quality Control is a product-based approach of running a program to define if the application has any defect, as well as make sure software fulfils all the requirements.
|Quality assurance is a process-oriented approach that focuses on making sure that the methods, techniques used to make quality deliverables are applied correctly.
|QA means planning for doing any testing process.
|QC means doing action for executing the planned process.
|QA does not involve executing the test cases.
|QC is always involved in executing the test cases.
|QA is the technique of handling the quality of the application.
|QC is a method to verify the quality of software
6) What is quality control? Is it similar to Quality Assurance?
Quality control is a product-based strategy of running a program to define if it has any defect, as well as create sure software fulfils all requirements with end-user.
So, Quality control is not similar to Quality assurance, Quality assurance is a process-oriented approach. It is focused only on process, methods, and techniques which is used to create quality deliverables that are applied correctly.
7) What different types of manual testing are there?
Manual testing is divided into different types, which are listed below:
- Acceptance Testing
- System Testing
- Black Box Testing
- White Box Testing
- Unit Testing
- Integration Testing
8) Explain the difference between alpha testing and beta testing.
Alpha and beta both testing types are types of user acceptance testing. Find the brief description of alpha vs beta testing here.
- Alpha Testing – Alpha testing is a process that is performed before realizing the product to identify a bug.
- Beta Testing – Beta testing is a process that is performed by the end-user after realizing the product.
9) What are the different levels of manual testing?
We have different 4 levels of manual testing, which is described below:
- Unit testing – Unit testing is testing where we test separate units or the smallest pieces of source code. The goal of unit testing is to separate all parts and show that all parts are worked without any defect.
- Integration Testing – It is a type of testing where individual units are combined and tested there is no bug after integrating the separate units.
- System Testing – System testing is defined as the testing of the whole integrated product. System testing is black-box testing, and it is performed in the form of a functional requirement specification.
- User Acceptance Testing – User acceptance testing is a final level of testing, UAT is performed by the end-user or client. In UAT testing verify that software or product is ready to be released or not into the real world.
10) What is a test in manual testing?
The tested environment is used for application testing; we can test hardware as well as software programs also. The test consists of hardware, network configuration, software, and other related software.
11) Explain the procedure for manual testing.
In The manual testing process, follow the below steps:
- Project Planning and Control
- Project Design
- Test case Execution
- Evaluating exit criteria and Reporting
- Test Closure activities
12) What is the test case?
One type of document that has a set of conditions that is performed on the particular application in order to verify the expected result of the feature is called a test case.
Test case documents include test steps, preconditions, postconditions, test data, and verification requirements.
13) What is API testing?
Perform software testing API directly from their functionality, reliability, security, and performance in API testing.
The application has three separate layers:
- First is the Presentation Layer or user interface.
- The second layer is Business Layer or application user interface for business logic processing.
- The third and last layer is Database Layer for
14) Do you know the difference between verification and validation in testing?
Verification testing is done without executing the code. Verification is a static technique. Verification is coming before validation. Verification is the process where to verify the quality of the product. Verification is to reduce the chances of failure in the product.
Validation testing is including the execution of the code. Validation is dynamic testing. Validation comes after Verification. Validation is the process in which the actual requirements of the customer match with the software functionality. Validation is done after completing the development process.
15) Do you know the difference between a bug and a defect?
The tester finds fault in the software during testing it is called a bug and when a product goes to live that time developer detects the difference between the actual result and the expected result is called a defect.
Alpha Vs Beta Testing: What’s the Difference?
Before we start alpha vs beta testing, We should know what is alpha testing and what is beta testing.
What is Alpha Testing?
Alpha testing is conducted to determine defects before releasing the final product to end users or to the public. Then the main goal of alpha is to identify the tasks that a typical user might perform and test them.
What is Beta Testing?
Beta testing is a type of software testing which is performed by real users of the software in a real environment. Beta testing is also one type of user acceptance testing. This testing helps the tester to test products in the customer’s environment.
Difference: Alpha Vs Beta Testing
The difference between alpha vs beta testing is as below:
|Alpha testing needs a testing atmosphere or a lab for testing.
|Beta testing doesn’t need a testing atmosphere or lab for testing.
|Alpha testing may need a lengthy execution cycle.
|Beta testing needs only a few weeks of execution.
|In alpha testing, developers can directly address critical bugs or fixes.
|Most of the bugs or feedback collected from the beta testing will be executed in future versions of the product.
|The goal of alpha testing is to estimate the quality of the product.
|The goal of beta testing is to estimate customer satisfaction.
|To confirm Beta eagerness
|To confirm release eagerness
|Concentrate on finding defects or errors
|Concentrate on gathering recommendations/feedback and consider them effectively
|Confirm that, does the product works properly without any bugs.
|Confirm that, do clients like the released product.
|Multiple test cycles performed
|Only performed 1 or 2 test cycles
|Separately each test cycle stays for 1 – 2 weeks
|Separately each test cycle stays for 4 – 6 weeks
|The duration of the cycle also depends on how many bugs are found and how many new features are added during alpha testing.
|The duration of the cycle may expand based on the end user’s feedback/recommendation.
|An acceptable number of bugs were missed in earlier testing activities.
|Major finished product with very a much smaller number of defects and crashes.
|Incomplete components and documentation.
|Almost finished components and documentation.
Developing an e-commerce website is a complex process. From defining the purpose, design to identifying the ways in which its user will make the payment, developing a website requires a lot of efforts. But, all those efforts might go in vain if the website is solely developed and no step is taken to ensure its proper functionality.
Testing an e-commerce website is a crucial step that helps ensure that it continues to deliver the required performance and keeps its users happy. It is also important to be sure about software’s reliable performance, optimum quality and capacity utilization. Similar to its development, testing an e-commerce website demands the tester’s proper attention. Some of the common techniques that can be used for testing an e-commerce website are as mentioned below:
Compatibility With Different Browsers
This form of testing is conducted to ensure that the product being developed offers provide proper support for early browsers and has browser specific extensions. While conducting this testing, it is also important to verify that it is able to cover main platforms like Linux, Windows, Mac etc.
Testing the product for this feature helps in verifying any incorrect display of pages, runtime error messages, poor download time of a page, dead hyperlink or font sizing error. Identifying this form of error helps in ensuring that all such errors are rectified on time.
This includes testing the website on parameters like the duration for which a session lasts, its storage, etc. Testing this feature is important to ensure the maximum safety and security of the user’s confidential data like bank account details, passwords, etc.
When you own an e-commerce website, it is important to ensure that it proves useful to its users. Test to ensure that it does not have poor site navigation, performs when someone navigates through the catalogue and is also available with complete support, in case the need arises.
Analysis of Content
One must ensure that the content available/visible to the end user is authentic and not at all misleading. This implies that the website should be thoroughly checked for the presence of any offensive or deceptive content, copyright of the images present on the website, possibility of personalizing the content, etc.
Data Backup and Recovery
Any e-commerce business runs on the basis of data availability. Therefore, it is important to ensure that there is no risk of data loss. In case of any data loss, there should always be a possibility of recovering the same. The risk of backup failure should not exist in case of e-commerce website.
Performance of Shopping Cart Features
The functionality of shopping cart is the utmost important part of an e-commerce website. When testing an e-commerce website, one must check the performance of its shopping cart in terms of adding or removing the items, processing of order and payment, tracking order, etc.
Performance for Global Audience
The website should never be limited to serve a particular set of audience. Making it viable to use for a mass audience by offering features like language support and display, its sensitivity to different cultures and regional accounting can make the website a path towards gaining a large customer base.
The extent to which a website integrates with the system is an important factor to consider when developing an e-commerce website. To verify this, the testing team needs to check and confirm the data interface format, interface frequency and volume capacity, updates and performance.
Login and Security
Testing an e-commerce website requires one to test it on several grounds like login capability, access control, ability to handle web attacks, transmission of information and viruses. It is also important to ensure that there is no breach of data or threat to the user’s data when he/she is using the website. app testing
It is important to remember that performance testing is the key to success for any e-commerce website. Conducting this form of testing ensures that there is no delay in its response time or handling any requests raised by the user. Remember, launching an e-commerce website is not an end; it is rather a beginning to delivering the best-in-class experience to the user that can be ensured only by conducting regular testing and maintenance.
Testers infrequently suppose about the difference between average and high quality tests. However, also it's frequently inconspicuous, If the test case is good. It indeed simply dissolves in the process of software verification. Testers flash back it only when they find a bug in a system. The following is an analysis showing that your test is of high quality and dependable.Tests Are Suitable for robotisation Occasionally, you can see tests that aren't completely automated. The most popular reason is that commodity is veritably complicated or nearly insolvable.
Test is performed regularly
The test doesn't crash unless the software has changed. Such a rule applies to the basics of original data generation. For illustration, we test the enrolment process for a new stoner. No doubt, if the system doesn’t induce the original dispatch, such a test most probably won’t serve on product.
Test ends with confirmation
It’s true, except in situations where one should clear the information and perform some other processes. Completion by confirmation is the stylish for any test case performing. similar allows you to make sure that the performed action actually passed rightly.
Test is stable and can be habituated in CI/ CD
still, they aren't stable enough to be used with CI/ CD, If your test suites regularly fail. Because every other product company is trying to reach CI and CD, occasionally similar tests aren't only ineffective but indeed dangerous. That’s because they take a lot of time and aren't suitable for automatic use in CI anyway.
Test requires minimum support
Tests aren't created independently. Most frequently, it's the work of a group of people who also have to support them in the future. Any member of the design should understand the test structure snappily and fluently enough. They don’t have to put in too important time and trouble. Indeed if tests are created by one person, occasionally, it can be extremely delicate to understand what this test is responsible for if it isn't created specifically to make tests easier to understand.
Tests Function in resemblant and nothing crashes sooner or latterly, test runs will take a veritably long time. In turn, this leads to slow programming speed and causes the so called “untested patch” effect.
It's worth allowing about resemblant testing so that the checking process would run smoothly. However, it automatically makes resemblant prosecution an easy task of structure debugging rather than a thing of rewriting test cases by all actors of the cargo testing company, If the tests are actuated in resemblant and they do n’t connect.
What is GUI Testing?
GUI Testing is a type of testing in which an applications’ Graphical User Interface (GUI) is tested to make sure it is in line with the expectations. GUI testing involves checking the objects on the UI (User Interface), which are the objects that we can see on the screen. Anything the user sees in the system or application is a GUI. Let us consider that if you visit a website, then the homepage is the GUI (graphical user interface) of the site. The source code will not be visible as the user can see only the UI interface. Mainly the focus of GUI testing is on the design pattern, images, alignment, spellings and the overall look and feel of the UI.
Why do we need GUI testing?
To get the answer you need to think as a user, not as a tester. It is the User Interface of the Software/Application that is a deciding factor to know whether a user is going to use the Application further or not. The looks and designs of the Application/Software are what a typical user will first look at. Secondly, he checks how easy it will be for him to understand and navigate through the UI. If the Software/Application is more complex and not appealing or if the user is not comfortable with the Interface design, then he is not going to use that Application again. That’s the reason, GUI testing is a matter for concern and should be taken very seriously. Also, proper testing should be carried out in order to make sure that GUI is free from any issues.
How to create test cases and how to do GUI testing?
UI Testing mostly involves the checking the various elements on the screen for their look and feel, the test cases should be written in such a way that they validate the following points for each of the UI objects. Size, position, width, and height of the objects with reference to other objects on the screen, Error messages displayed on the screen, the color and font of the error message. Errors are normally in Red color. Readable and inconsistent across the application unless specified by the client. Checking the same screen in different resolution with the help of zooming in and zooming out like 640 x 480, 600×800, etc. Also if there is a requirement you may want to check it in a mobile browser as well. Font color, hyperlink color, error/warning message color, etc. Quality of the images on the screen, if applicable. Spellings, grammar, and punctuations. Scrollbars according to the size of the page if any. Checking disabled fields if any. Checking the size of the images.
Challenges in GUI Testing:
The list of GUI test cases can be very exhaustive and time-consuming and it requires a lot of manual effort and the quality of the testing would depend on the skills of the tester. Number of automation tools available is very limited GUI is usually unstable during the initial development phases, so GUI testing is postponed to the end of the testing cycle, which sometimes creates a time crunch.
What Is ERP Testing?
Before going into ERP testing, we've to know about the ERP. ERP stands for Enterprise Resource Planning.ERP Testing is critical since each business can customise its workflow depending on the needs of their organisation. When doing ERP testing, the tester has got to understand the business workflows, data flows, and ERP modules. Then only he/she are going to be ready to test and ensure the system implementation is suiting their organisation.
How To Do ERP Testing?
ERP Testing mainly focuses generally on functional testing and performance testing. The next preference is given for the mixing between the modules and therefore the data flows. ERP testing are often done either manually or automatically. ERP testing are often wiped out the below phases:
Identify the business processes and define the scope of testing.
Setting up a test system. Prepare Test Plan. Prepare the test suites. Create test data sets. Write test cases.(manual/automated) Test Execution. Prepare Test Reports.
Different Types Of ERP Testing
Functional Testing: Functional testing will cover the aspects of compatibility, localisation, integration with other systems, etc. The testing are often done either manually or by automation. This is the primary testing type got to be conducted since the functional workflow should work flawlessly. After functional testing completed, the opposite sorts of testing got to be performed. The testing are often done by manual or automated testing.
Integration Testing: Integration testing usually conducted when an application is interacting with multiple components. The components need to be tested individually. After the completion of the testing of the modules, it must be tested with all components as an entire workflow. Then only the system should work sort of a single unit at the top after integration seamlessly.
Performance Testing: Performance testing usually conducted to make sure what percentage users can access the system at an equivalent time and what's the reaction time during that. The user volume and therefore the concurrent usage are going to be more after the implementation of ERP systems. It is critical to try to to the performance testing of the ERP system since it's to interact with multiple applications.
Security Testing: Security testing is conducted to make sure that the system follows the quality security policies and rules. It helps to spot risks, threats, and vulnerabilities of the system. After identifying the vulnerabilities, those should be fixed and tested before the implementation of the ERP system.
Below are the followings points which can we learn from other competitors about beta testing.
The important thing that you can learn from your competitors is how they proceed with the beta testing and how they strategise their every action. They prepared several instructions before proceeding with the beta testing. Proper project planning should be written down and agreed upon by the other fellow mates. The objective of the beta testing and how you’re going to achieve that goal should be clear.
If you’ve ever looked at the team of other competitors who include professional beta testers, they are able to achieve their work more easily. You can also gather a team of professionals with experience in the beta testing. Their opinions and aspects would be totally different which will provide various working conditions which can be used for the beta testing procedure.
If you want to improve your structure of software or modifying it, you can learn how the other competitors take feedback from their users. By taking the proper feedback from their users they alter every single of the bugs or error which shows up during the beta testing procedure. You can also improve your software by taking feedbacks from your user when they start using the beta software. The feedback can be in the form of bugs report, quotes, suggestions or surveys.
Learn the major tools which are being used by the other software testing companies and try to understand the concepts of different tools which are used in the beta testing procedure. Thus it would be a great thing to learn from the other top companies and follow their footsteps. Try using different tools and adapt them.
Many of your competitors may use beta testing as a marketing strategy. They strategise their market planning and create awareness among the users about the beta software. It helps in creating a buzz among the beta users and creates eagerness among them. Thus you can also use this type of strategy to engage your beta users and create more eagerness among them. This will help in the involvement of a beta user if there is a new version of the beta software which is going to update.
If you want to make your application more useful, you need to understand what platforms you are using to test your software. Learn from the other competitors and see which platforms they are using for beta testing of their software. You can learn to release an app which can perform on more than one platform with more than one different ways of performance. This is the best way to make your software more usable by doing tests on different platforms which you can learn from your competitors.
You can use the tool which your competitors use to save time by taking the valuable feedback from the beta users. This will help you to take valuable feedback from the user directly to your tool services. You don’t have to ask them over a phone or visit them. This tool will help you to set up a particular email ID which can be used to catch feedback from the users.
You can learn simple to complex things from your competitors. The simplest thing which your competitors can teach you is the patience and integrity. You don’t have to falter when your QA testified software comes up with a lot of errors and bug while running beta testing. There are many companies which face failures and still come up with a great solution for their services.
Your competitors may use quantity of beta testers to test their software in a real You can also get a large number of beta testers who are professional in testing the software under real-work conditions. This will help you to get a plenty of feedback on different aspects of your software. Always look for the quality beta testers and invite them for beta testing.
The last thing you can learn from your competitors is how they handle their feedback and bugs reports. How fast they can be to provide the solution to that problem. You can have an effective team of experts which can take this valuable feedback and without wasting any time comes up with a solution and makes your software error Major companies solve their bug issue in just a few times after getting a feedback.
User Acceptance Technique is widely used for its efficiency and effectiveness.If we followed all steps of User Acceptance correctly then it will increase the satisfaction of a Customer.
UAT is a process of verifying that a Software or a System works appropriately as per the User Requirement.The main purpose of this testing is to ensure that a software system is all set to be in front of users in a real world.This testing phase also known as Beta and End-user testing and is mostly considered during the web development process to ensure that software is ready for the final installation for the Client site.
Types of User Acceptance Testing
- Alpha & Beta Testing: Alpha testing is done by the staff members only on an internal whereas beta testing includes the Customer's environment with the help of some customer who will going to use our System or Software.
- Black Box Testing: This type of functional testing includes all functionalities of the System without knowing the internal code structure.
- Contract Acceptance Testing: In Contract type testing, software is tested against some criteria which are already predefined in a proper contract.
- Operational Acceptance Testing: This type of Acceptance testing ensure that all the workflow used in system are working properly.
- Regulation Acceptance Testing: Compliance Acceptance Testing helps in investigate the software fulfils all the guidelines of legal and governmental process.
Criteria Before Perform User Acceptance Testing
- Entire application code should be up to date.
- Integration testing, unit testing and System testing must be completed before we perform User Acceptance Testing.
- There should not be any high/medium faults in the Integration phase of Testing.
- There must be no major defect in the Regression Testing.
- All the error/defects must get solved which we face during the testing and then testing should be done again to verify the error got fixed or not.
Involvement of Users in User Acceptance Testing:
The group is most essential for the UAT must include real end users that will going to perform a test on your system.The stakeholder and other group must incorporated that means an individual of every group is involved in the development phase must be in the team.
Start User Acceptance Testing:
After the explanation of UAT as above, you must get clear about what and why UAT must include in the software development phase. Mainly there are total of four steps that must be considered but it will depend on the number of user that will take advantage of software. The main criteria that must be followed in the software are the ‘working’ requirement of the assembled application. You can easily get a hang of it from the stories of users or system requirements. The second step is to create some test cases for UAT. User Acceptance Testcases are the test steps sets, expected results and execution conditions must be developed for some specific purpose.
These are some main points of the User Acceptance Testing that is used in the development cycle. The projects are reduced to the like of any errors that are elevated and it will reduce the total work required in the maintenance or development phase. On above all of that , you will get a happy and satisfied user that will give you more revenue.